Community Ecology - School District #308 / Homepage

Community Ecology - School District #308 / Homepage

Community Ecology Chapter 54 Community An assemblage of populations of various

species living close enough for potential interactions Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved

54.1 Types of Interactions Interspecific Interactions Interactions with other species Intraspecific Interactions

Interactions within one species Ecological Niche Every species survives and reproduces utilizing a range of chemical and biological conditions Resource partitioning allows species to live in the same habitat by fulfilling different ecological niches

Competitive Exclusion Principle Direct interspecific competition will always lead to the extinction of one species One species will have a

slight competitive edge in surviving and reproducing Interspecific Species Interactions Predation (+/-)

Predation Defense Strategies Cryptic coloration camouflage Aposematic coloration warning coloration Batesian mimicry a harmless species mimics a harmful one

Mullerian mimicry two harmful species mimic each other (a) Cryptic coloration (b) Aposematic coloration

Canyon tree frog Poison dart frog (c) Batesian mimicry: A harmless species mimics a harmful one. Hawkmoth

Larva (harmless) (d) Mllerian mimicry: Two unpalatable species mimic each other. Cuckoo bee Yellow jacket

Green parrot snake (harmful) Herbivory (+/-) Parasitism (+/-) Commensalism (+/0)

Mutualism (+/+) Facilitation (+/+ or 0/+) One species influences the survival and reproduction of another species

Ex: plant species that make soil hospitable for other species to thrive Diversity and trophic structure characterize biological communities 54.2

Species Diversity Species richness: Total amount of species in a community Relative abundance: Total amount of one species in a community

Diversity is key to a healthy, stable ecosystem Simpsons Index of Biodiversity Mathematical method of measuring diversity

Accounts for abundance and richness of species in an ecosystem Trophic Structure Trophic structure: feeding relationships

Represented by food webs, chains How energy flows through ecosystem! Decomposers cycle matter in ecosystem! Energy availability limits length of

food chains 10% rule Biomass: amount of mass of individuals in a population Keystone Species Organism with a pivotal role in an ecosystem

Not necessarily, usually the dominant (most abundant) species! The removal of a keystone species results in the collapse of the ecosystem Ex: sea otter (Enhydra lutris) Disturbance influences species diversity and composition

53.3 Disturbance event that changes the dynamics of a community Succession recovery of that community after a disturbance

Disturbance & Succession Primary vs. Secondary Succession Primary begins with rock

Ex: glacier, volcano Secondary begins with soil Ex: forest fire, flood Climax community recovered, long term stability

Human vs. Natural Disturbance Humans clearing land for own uses Ex: logging, agriculture Generally, no recovery

to climax community Biogeographic factors affect community diversity 54.4 Abiotic shapes

biotic Pathogens alter community structure locally and globally 54.5 Abiotic shapes

biotic Pathogen: disease causing microorganism Zoonotic pathogen: pathogen of animal origin that are transferred to humans

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