CLASSIFICATION

CLASSIFICATION

CL N O I T A C I F I ASS Y

M O N O TAX Biology B-Day 5/7/18 Bellringer Agenda Bellringer Go Over exam Puzzle Activity

Notes Biology B-Day 5/7/18 Agenda Bellringer Go Over exam Puzzle Activity Notes Biology B-Day: 5/9/18 Bellringer: What are the two domains?

Agenda: Bellringer Finish Notes Dichotomous Key What domain do fungi fall under? Why? Biology B-Day: 5/9/18 Bellringer: What are the two domains? Eukarya and Prokarya

What domain do fungi fall under? Why? Eukarya, because they contain a nucleus that holds DNA Agenda: Bellringer Finish Notes Dichotomous Key Biology B-Day: 5/11/18 Bellringer

Agenda Of all the invertebrates, which phylum contains organisms with an exoskeleton made of chitin and segmented bodies? All vertebrates share which of the following characteristics? (choose 1) a. endothermic c. spinal cord symmetry

b. exothermic d. radial Bellringer Binomial Nomenclature Notes Dichotomus Key activity Are Viruses Alive? Exit Slip- dichotomous key Biology B-Day: 5/11/18 Bellringer

Agenda Of all the invertebrates, which phylum contains organisms with an exoskeleton made of chitin and segmented bodies? Bellringer Athropods Binomial Nomenclature

Notes All vertebrates share which of the following characteristics? (choose 1) Dichotomus Key activity a. endothermic c. spinal cord symmetry b. exothermic d. radial

Are Viruses Alive? Exit Slip- dichotomous key Characteristics of living things: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. all all all all all all all all living living

living living living living living living things things things things things things

things things have DNA are made of cells obtain/use energy need to adapt/evolve respond to a stimulus maintain homeostasis reproduce grow and develop Characteristics of Life

Videos: http://www.exploratorium.edu/imaging_station/students/c_elegans.html http://www.exploratorium.edu/imaging_station/students/sea_urchins_div .html http://www.exploratorium.edu/imaging_station/students/sea_urchins_fer t.html http://www.exploratorium.edu/imaging_station/students/blood_cells.htm l http://www.exploratorium.edu/imaging_station/students/cell_struct_func t.html http://www.exploratorium.edu/imaging_station/students/stem_cells.html http://www.exploratorium.edu/imaging_station/students/cell_motility.ht ml

Homeostasis: ability of the body to maintain a stable equilibrium Example: a person sweating when running or a dog panting TERMS TO KNOW CLASSIFICATION: process of dividing organisms into groups with similar characteristics TAXONOMY: the science of classifying living things

Reasons for classifying living things Need for order and organization so information is easier to find. Logical universal means for naming organisms is needed. Organisms may be identified if they are classified by their characteristics. CLASSIFICATION KEY: tool used to identify organisms using their characteristics

Also called a DICHOTOMOUS KEY Classification of pets Development of Taxonomy A natural way of classifying organisms is based on the way organisms look and how they live. Aristotle devised the first classification system over 1000 years ago. Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus developed a classification system based on structural similarities during the 1700s.

Linnaeus divided all organisms into two major groups called KINGDOMS, which he divided into smaller and smaller groups. Kingdom Less SPECIFIC Phylum Class

Order Family Genus Species More SPECIFIC SPECIES: organisms that are similar in structure and appearance, can breed successfully, and have the same number of chromosomes. VARIETIES or BREEDS: groups of slightly different organisms in the same species.

Binomial Nomenclature Linnaeus also introduced a system of naming organisms cal BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE. In binomial nomenclature the first name is the genus to whi the organisms belongs, the second name is the species nam that organism. The genus name is CAPITALIZED; the species name is lower Scientific names are always underlined or italicized. EXAMPLE Genus species Homo sapien (man)

Linnaeus used Latin names because: It is the language of scientists around the world. It is studied and written, but not spoken. It is descriptive and the root of many other languages. EXAMPLES of scientific names Canis familiaris Canis lupus domestic dog

wolf Canis latrans coyote Common names are confusing because: The same organism may have many common names. Common names are misleading. Common names vary with different languages. Common names: mountain lion, puma,

cougar, panther. Scientific name: Felis concolor Modern Taxonomy Modern taxonomy is based on genetic similarities and the theory of evolution. If two organisms have the same number of chromosomes and the chromosomes are similar in form, then the organisms are closely related. The greater similarities in DNA, the closer relationship between organisms.

DOMAIN: largest division of taxonomy, based on differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes have NO nuclear membrane surrounding their genetic material, while eukaryotes have a nuclear membrane surrounding their genetic material to form a nucleus. DOMAIN ARCHEA: (Kingdom Archeabacteria) prokaryotic organisms that live in extreme environments; halophiles

(organisms which thrive in highly salty environments) and hyperthermophiles (organisms which thrive in extremely hot environments) are examples. DOMAIN BACTERIA: (Kingdom Eubacteria) common prokaryotic organisms found almost everywhere; bacteria (heterotrophic carbon-eating prokaryotes) and cyanobacteria (autotrophic photosynthetic prokaryotes) are examples. DOMAIN EUKARYOTE: eukaryotic organisms that are most of the world's visible living things; the kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia are examples. The FOUR KINGDOMS of

the DOMAIN EUKARYOTA KINGDOM PROTISTA: eukaryotic unicellular organisms (cells have nucleus); protozoa and simple algae. KINGDOM FUNGI: multicellular eukaryotic organisms that are plant like in structure but cannot make their own food; molds and mushrooms. KINGDOM PLANTAE: multicellular eukaryotic organisms which can make their own food through photosynthesis; grasses, trees and flowering plants. KINGDOM ANIMALIA: motile, multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that ingest food; sponges, insects, worms, fish, reptiles, birds, mammals.

Animal Kingdom Phyla: Mollusca: water living, soft bodies, covered by a hard shellex: snails, clams Porifera: pore bearing animals, marine habitatsex: sponges Cnidaria: shaped like a polyp, marine habitats---ex: jellyfish, coral Platyhelminthes: flatworms, found in ponds and lakes Annelida: bilaterally symmetrical, segmented worms or ringed worms Arthropoda: inverterbrate with exoskeleton, a segemented bodyex: insects, arachnids Echinoderma: radial symmetryex: starfish, sand dollar

Chordata: vertebrates, possess notochordex: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals Plant Phyla: Bryophyta: flowerless, grow in damp, shady locations in clumpsex: mosses Filicinophyta: terrestrial, vascular plantsex: ferns Conifers: gymnosperms, cone-bearing, seed plants ex: cedars, douglas-firs Angiosperms: flowering plants, land plants, fruit productionex: daisies, lillies, oak trees Viral Structure and

Classification VIRUS: a biological particle composed of genetic material (DNA or RNA) encased in a protein coat CAPSID: protein coat surrounding a virus OBLIGATE INTRACELLULAR PARASITE: biological particle that requires a host cell to reproduce VIRUSES ARE NOT CONSIDERED TO BE LIVING ORGANISMS BECAUSE They do not reproduce by mitosis or meiosis. They cannot carry out cellular respiration. They have no nucleus, cytoplasm, organelles, or cell

membrane They require a host cell to use organelles and enzymes to reproduce more viruses. Outside a host cell a virus is a lifeless particle with no control over its own movement. Viral capsids may have different shapes, but the most common is the icosahedron. ICOSAHEDRON: viral capsid shape that is a polyhedron with 20 triangular sides. Example - cold, polio

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