Classification and Introduction to Animals Chapter 18 & 34
Chapter 34 Intro to Animals Image from: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/index.html Animals Invertebrates (animals without a backbone) Porifera Cnidaria
Worms Mollusks Echinoderms Arthropods Animals VertebratesAnimals with backbones Fish Amphibians
Reptiles Birds Mammals Animal Groups Image from: http://ology.amnh.org/biodiversity/treeoflife/pages/graph.html Characteristics of ALL Animals: 1. Are
____________________ EUKARYOTES cells have nucleus & membrane bound organelles HETEROTROPHIC 2. Are ____________________ get food from consuming other organisms MULTICELLULAR 3. Are ____________________ made of many cells
SPECIALIZATION 4. Show __________________ different kinds of cells do different jobs Characteristics of ALL Animals: MOVE 5. _____________ (at some point in life cycle) for food, find mates, escape danger DNA
6. Contain _____________ which carries the genetic code REPRODUCE 7. ____________________ Make offspring Most have sexual reproduction (few asexual) 10 Body Systems : 1. _____________________ INTEGUMENTARY
OUTSIDE BODY COVERING (fur, skin, scales, feathers) Covers and protects, ID, prevents heat & water loss Orangutan image from: http://www.biologycorner.com/webquests.php Fish image from:http://www.woodburning.com/fish/ Frog image from: http://gladstone.uoregon.edu/~mmorley/rainbow/green%20frog.jpg Cardinal image from: http://www.nps.gov/fopu/pulaskione/GRAPHIC/IMAGES/birds/Northern%20Cardinal.jpg
10 Body Systems : DIGESTIVE 2. _________________ Breaks down food to obtain nutrients & gets rid of undigested waste Image from: http://infozone.imcpl.org/kids_diges.htm
NO OPENINGS: Food enters through skin Images from: http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif Only one opening: FOOD IN and WASTE OUT through same opening Image from: http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif
Two openings: FOOD IN at one end (mouth) WASTE OUT at other end (ANUS) Image from: http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif Two openings: Most efficient If food flows only one direction it allows for organ specialization
(Different parts can start to do different jobs) 10 Body Systems : 3. __________________ CIRCULATORY Transports nutrients/oxygen to body cells Carries carbon dioxide/nitrogen waste away from cells Circulatory fluid can be: inside blood vessels = _________
CLOSED loose inside body spaces = _______ OPEN Image from: http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_19/147a.gif 10 Body Systems : 4. ___________________ RESPIRATORY Exchange gases with the
environment take in oxygen get rid of waste gases (CO2 &/or ammonia) Image from: http://www.umm.edu/respiratory/images/respiratory_anatomy.gif 10 Body Systems : 5. ___________________ EXCRETORY
Get rid of nitrogen waste made by cells Help with HOMEOSTASIS by maintaining water/ion balance (_________________________) OSMOREGULATION NITROGEN WASTE : AMMONIA
_________________ Most TOXIC Must be removed QUICKLY Needs MOST water to dilute _________________ Made from ammonia by liver UREA
Less toxic than ammonia Can be stored if diluted with water (Needs less water to dilute than ammonia) URIC ACID LEAST TOXIC _________________ Can be stored if diluted with water (Needs LEAST amount of water to dilute) http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG
NITROGEN WASTE 10 Body Systems : SKELETAL 6. ___________________ Framework to support body/protection ENDOSKELETON Skeleton on inside = _______________ EXOSKELETON
Skeleton on outside = _______________ Walking skeleton image from: http://virtualastronaut.jsc.nasa.gov/textonly/act15/text-skeletonpuz.html Insect lefg image from:http://www.zoobooks.com/newFrontPage/animals/virtualZoo/animals/i/insects/images/exoskeleton Image from: http://kidshealth.org/kid/body/muscles_noSW.html 10 Body Systems : MUSCULAR
7. _______________ Locomotion- move body itself OR move substances through body (EX: food through digestive system; blood through vessels) http://www.angliacampus.com/public/sec/science/nutriton/images/peristal.gif 10 Body Systems : 8. _____________________
REPRODUCTIVE Produce offspring by combining genetic material from 2 parents = __________________________ SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Produce offspring using genetic material from only 1 parent =_____________________________ ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Family image from: http://babyhearing.org/Parenet2Parent/index.asp
Planaria animation: http://www.t3.rim.or.jp/~hylas/planaria/title.htm 10 Body Systems : INDIRECT DEVELOPMENT ______________ immature LARVA looks different than adult Metamorphosis image from: http://www.lincoln.midcoast.com/~del/butterfly Frog image from: http://www.animationlibrary.co
__________ DIRECT DEVELOPMENT young are smaller versions on adults Image from: http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/life/images/grow.JPG Sperm and egg join External fertilization outside females body = ___________________ Sperm and egg join
inside females body = ____________________ Internal fertilization Animation from: http://discover.edventures.com/images/termlib/f/fertilization/support.gif 9. ___________________ NERVOUS Receive sensory info about environment & send response signals
http://www.roadhunter.com/~ceph/gallery/anatomy07.jpg ENDOCRINE 10. __________________ Make hormones that regulate other body systems (only in higher animals)
Image from: http://www.cushings-help.com/images/endocrine.jpg ALL WASTE is NOT THE SAME! DIGESTIVE WASTE WHERE ITS MADE? Body system used? In what form?
left over from undigested food Handled by digestive system Feces (poop) NITROGEN WASTE
made by cells from break down of proteins Handled by excretory system ammonia, urea, or uric acid Kinds of Symmetry No symmetry
Radial symmetry Bilateral symmetry ASYMMETRY ___________________ No symmetry Doesnt matter how you cut it; you never get 2 identical halves.
http://biodidac.bio.uottawa.ca/ Get 2 identical halves in several directions. Bilateral ___________ Symmetry If divide animal down the middle you get 2
mirror images BUT only divides equally in ONE direction Image from: http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Documents/Animals/Symmetry.htm 3. EMBRYOLOGY Image from: http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/litu/03_3.shtml
1. Where does BLASTOPORE end up? 2. What do embryos look like as they divide? 3. When do cells decide what they will be? EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT Becomes digestive system
Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm 1. Where does BLASTOPORE end up? Images modified from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm What do embryos look like as they divide? SPIRAL CLEAVAGE
Images from: http://www.zo.utexas.edu/faculty/sjasper/images/so28_04.gif RADIAL CLEAVAGE When do cells decide what they will become? Image from: http://www.rbej.com/content/figures/1477-7827-1-100-1.jpg
Cells decide early Removing cell causes death DETERMINATE Cells decide later Removing cell OK
INDETERMINATE Images modified from: http://www.rbej.com/content/figures/1477-7827-1-100-1.jpg THATS WHERE TWINS COME FROM! ANIMALS PROTOSTOMES
DEUTEROSTOMES Blastopore becomes MOUTH Decide very early (DETERMINATE) Blastopore becomes ANUS
Decide later (INDETERMINATE) RADIAL cleavage SPIRAL cleavage ALL INVERTEBRATES except ECHINODERMS ALL VERTEBRATES (Fish, amphibians, birds,
reptiles, mammals) plus ECHINODERMS EMBRYOLOGY __________________ Echinoderms are the exception to the rule! They are INVERTEBRATES but their embryos act like
DEUTEROSTOMES _________________________ Image from: http://www.bsac21.freeserve.co.uk/images/Critters/Starfish%20Bloody%20Henry.JPG EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT Becomes digestive system Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm
All animals except sponges, jellyfish, anemones have 3 germ layers in their embryos Endoderm Digestive system, respiratory Muscle, excretory, bones, Mesoderm
circulatory Outer skin, brain, Ectoderm nervous system Types of Coeloms (See-Lums) No cavity (space) around organs
Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16labman05/lb5pg10.htm ACOELOM = without space FLATWORMS are ACOELOMATES! Types of Coeloms (See-Lums) Space around organs but only lined with mesoderm on one side
(lines body wall BUT NOT around gut) Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16labman05/lb5pg10.htm PSEUDOCOELOM ROUND WORMS are PSEUDOCOELOMATES! Kinds of Coeloms (See-Lums) EUCOELOM: Body cavity (space)
lined on BOTH sides by mesoderm Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16labman05/lb5pg10.htm EUCOELOM = TRUE COELOM = COELOM EUCOELOMATES ALL VERTEBRATES & SOME
INVERTEBRATES ALL ANIMALS you will dissect this year are EUCOELOMATES! 3 Types of Coeloms ACOELOM ectoderm mesoderm endoderm
EUCOELOM PSEUDOCOELOM Image from: http://www.lander.edu/rsfox/310images/310bil5.jpg Advantages of having a COELOM (body space): Provides space for internal organs In animals without a skeletonFluid in coelom space can act as a HYDROSTATIC skeleton
In animals without blood vesselsFluid in coelom space can circulate nutrients and oxygen to cells WHY is a EUCOELOM the best? Digestive organ muscles and body wall muscles come from MESODERM in different places so organism can digest food and move at same time. Images from:
http://www.lander.edu/rsfox/310images/310bil5.jpg http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Images/Animal_Images/coelomate.gif Which way is up? DORSAL (top) ANTERIOR head end POSTERIOR tail end
VENTRAL (underneath) Image from: http://www.ca4h.org/4hresource/clipart/animals/pics/dog.gif CEPHALIZATION ________________ Concentration of nervous tissue and sensory organs in anterior end of an
organism (head area) SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things 9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized
structures within cells. SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things 9-12.L.1.2. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationship of major
taxa. (APPLICATION) Kingdoms Examples: animals, plants, fungi, protista, monera Phyla Examples: invertebrates, vertebrates, divisions of plants SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures,
functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things 9-12.L.1.3. Students are able to identify structures and function relationships within major Core High School Life Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level:
predict the function of a given structure; predict how homeostasis is maintained within living systems; High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: describe the relationship between structure and function explain how homeostasis is maintained within living systems;
High school students performing at the BASIC level recognize that different structures perform different functions; define homeostasis SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS
9-12.L.1.5A. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationships of domains. (SYNTHESIS) Examples: eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes SOURCES Anemone from: http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/children/animals/cnidaria.gif Snail from: http://www.lucinda.net/surber/graphics/orlovsky.gif
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