Civil Rights

Civil Rights

li v i s C ht g Harriet Tubman Martin Luther King Jr. W.E.B. Dubois Rosa Parks Emmett Till Booker T. Washington Frederick

Douglass Black Malcolm X. The Sit-ins Stokley Non-violent The Story of Civil Rights in America l i v i s C ht g 1

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade 1619-1820 THE MIDDLE PASSAGE was the voyage by slave traders carrying slaves from the west coast of Africa to the Americas Over the centuries, millions died in the crossing. This meant that the living were often chained to the dead until the ship surgeons had the corpses thrown overboard. People were crowded together, usually forced to lie on their backs with their heads between the legs of others. This meant they often had to lie in each 5 Abolition Movement (1800-1860s)

Abolition: A pre-Civil War movement to bring a complete end to slavery. New England (and Boston in particular) were known to have abolitionist leanings. Abolitionists could be former slaves, Methodist church congregations, or writers such as Harriet Beecher Stowe. https://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=ijFy4RjYGbQ https://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=6tx5DZC3X1M Find this picture s u o fam t e Som litionis abo ders a 3

Frederick Douglass escapes slavery (1838) https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=Su-4JBEIhXY Frederick Douglass was a former slave who became an abolitionist speaker and writer He escaped from slavery in 1838 and made a life of public speaking, usually on the topic of abolition. After the Civil War, he spoke and wrote about black civil rights. "To make a contented slave it is necessary to make a thoughtless one. It is necessary to darken the moral and mental vision and, as far as possible, to annihilate the power of reason." Find this picture

7 Underground Railroad (1850s) A network of people (not a real R.R.) who arranged transportation & hiding places for escaped slaves from southern slave-holding states who were on their way to northern free states. Harriet Tubman was one of the most famous conductors of the Underground Railroad. Find this picture 7 Underground Railroad (1850s)

8 Harriet Tubman as a conductor (1850-1861) https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=XmsNGrkbHm4 Find this picture Tubman escaped from slavery in 1849, and worked as a conductor on the underground railroad for 11 years, helping former slaves reach free states in the North. After the Fugitive Slave Act forced northern states to return escaped slaves, Tubman helped escapees get to Canada. 9 Civil War (1861-1865) https://www.youtube.com

/watch?v=U8-GzX4Jz_w Find this picture A 4-year war between the Northern States of the United States and the Southern States that started because the South tried to break away and start their own country. The south left the Union for several reasons. They believed that states, not the federal (national) government should have power in determining laws such as slavery. 9 Civil War (1861-1865) https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=U8-GzX4Jz_w Find this picture Also, the issue of slavery was another major cause of the war since the southern states needed slaves to keep

their economy strong and they knew that the abolition movement was gaining momentum. They had to actand they did. In 1861 the Southern states seceded from the Union to form their own country, The Confederate States of America. 10 Emancipation Proclamation (1863) Find this picture Abraham Lincoln was president during the Civil War. Lincoln initially supported war with the South to preserve the Union, but later saw it as a way to grant freedom for slaves. 10 Emancipation Proclamation (1863) Find this picture https://www.youtube.com

/watch?v=xh3-9R7Q0OE His 1862/63 Emancipation Proclamation (right in the middle of the Civil War) was an executive order that officially granted freedom to slaves. Equally famous, his 10-sentence long Gettysburg Address after the Battle of Gettysburg is viewed as one of the most famous speeches in history. 11 Black Codes (1865) In the days of slavery, slave codes were created to bring order. They provided rules and punishments to protect slave-owners against runaways or uprisings. After the Civil War, the 13th, 14th, & 15th amendments outlawed slavery and gave former slaves citizenship and voting rights, slave codes no longer applied. Many Southern whites wanted to maintain the social status quo. Several states created new laws called black codes, which sought to limit civil rights and freedoms of blacks.

Find this picture Black codes continued legal discrimination against blacks 11 Black Codes (1865) Specifically, black codes were local and state laws that aimed to control where blacks could work, travel or be at any moment. In Texas for example, white Texans feared that freed slaves would refuse to work, so black codes coerced blacks to work. Many Southern states considered anyone with at least oneeighth black ancestry to be legally black. The Black codes were short-lived since they were eliminated by the Freedom Amendments. Find this picture Black codes continued legal discrimination against blacks 11

Black Codes (1865) Examples of 1865 Black Codes in Louisiana Sec. 5 No public meetings or congregations of negroes shall be allowed after sunset; but such public meetings and congregations may be held between the hours of sunrise and sunset, by the special permission in writing of the captain of patrol, within whose beat such meetings shall take place. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aAUXdd-DAh0 http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Prod uct/Civil-War-Primary-Source-Document-B LACK-CODES-Louisiana-1865-1134271 12 Ku Klux Klan Founded (1865) Ku Klux Klan 1860s Although a wave activity emerged in the 1920s, and again in the 1960s to oppose the Civil Rights Movement,

the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) has been in existence since the late 1860s. The Klan refers to a group that used terror tactics and violence to promote white dominance and superiority in the Southern United States. Ku Klux Klan 1920s Ku Klux Klan 1960s 13 13th Amendment (1865) 13th Amendment (1865): officially outlawed slavery Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation

Find this picture 14 14th Amendment (1868) 14th Amendment (1868): All citizens get same legal rights Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Find this picture 15 15th Amendment (1870) 15th Amendment (1870): Gave all citizens the right to vote Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State

on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation Find this picture 16 Jim Crow Era (1865-1954) Jim Crow laws referred to any laws that forced segregation in public places such as schools, trains, buses, bathrooms, etc. These state and local laws were used to preserve ideas that blacks were inferior. Find this picture Jim Crow States 16 Jim Crow Era (1865-1954)

Jim Crow laws referred to any laws that forced segregation in public places such as schools, trains, buses, bathrooms, etc. These state and local laws were used to preserve ideas that blacks were inferior. Find this picture Jim Crow States 16 Jim Crow Era (1865-1954) The term Jim Crow originally referred to a white actor who played a black man using racial stereotypes with black face paint, large lips and jerky movements. By the 1840s, Jim Crow was simply used as another term for a black man. During reconstruction, Jim Crow Laws described laws that promoted the concept of separating blacks and whites. https://www.youtube.com/

watch?v=A6dXrm1YjBE 16 Jim Crow Era (1865-1954) Proponents of Jim Crow Laws believed that it was prudent to have races separated in all aspects of society. These laws were predominantly in the Southern United States and were strikingly different from the black codes. Black codes restricted the freedoms of blacks, but Jim Crow laws accomplished complete social separation of the races. https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=A6dXrm1YjBE 16 Jim Crow Era (1865-1954) What about other racial groups??? In terms of white perceptions toward other ethnicities, it depended on the region. Some areas of the South treated other minorities such as Native Americans or Hispanics almost

as poorly as blacks. Some areas treated non-black minorities much better. Many regions even had the viewpoint personified by black singer Big Bill Broonzy: If youre white, youre all rightif youre brown, stick aroundbut if youre black, get back. 18 Plessy v Ferguson (1896) Plessy v. Ferguson A Supreme Court ruling that made public segregation legal. Homer Plessy was 7/8 white and 1/8 black, but was removed from the white train car because the State of Louisiana defined any person with traces of black genes to be legally black. te but a r a p e S ??

equal? Find this pict ure Sepa ra equa te but l??? 18 Plessy v Ferguson (1896) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s54MsnV2Dp 0 Plessy brought his case to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled that this didnt violate the 14th amendment since it only separated races as a matter of social policy and that public

facilities were separate but equal. In other words, Jim Crow Laws & racial segregation were protected by federal law. te but a r a p e S ?? equal? Find this pict ure Sepa ra equa te but

l??? 21 NAACP Established (1909) W.E.B. DuBois help found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909. DuBois Niagara Movement was considered the predecessor of the NAACP. The mission statement of the NAACP is, "to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination. Niagara Movement Find this picture Niagara Movement was the predecessor of the NAACP

NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People CORE Congress of Racial Equality SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Conference SNCC Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee 21 NAACP Established (1909) The NAACP has always been active in furthering AfricanAmerican Civil Rights, but came to national prominence in the 1950s and 1960s. They are still active today. And although the term colored is less politically correct, the name remains the same in order to preserve its legacy and historical roots. Today, the NAACP has about 500,000 members. Niagara Movement https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=RcJEbvlGLSY Find this picture

Niagara Movement was the predecessor of the NAACP NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People CORE Congress of Racial Equality SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Conference SNCC Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee 25 Jackie Robinson Breaks Color Line (1947) First Black player in the Major Leagues Find this picture 24 Military Desegregation (1948)

WW II was a war that exposed U.S. hypocrisy regarding racism The United States sent tens of thousands of troops, including segregated black regiments as well) to Europe and the Pacific to fight racism and the fascist regimes of Germany, Italy & Japan. Yet, we ignored the racism and segregation at home. In 1948, Harry Truman signed executive Order 9981 ordering desegregation of the U.S. Armed Forces. Find this picture https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=zZo0bkG8BEw 25 Jackie Robinson Breaks Color Line (1947) First Black player in the Major Leagues Broke the baseball color line after 60 years of Negro Leagues Rookie-of-the-year (47) All-Star 6 straight years (49-54) His Dodgers won the 1955 World Series Batted .311 during his career

His #42 is retired by ALL MLB teams Baseballs 1st Black T.V. analyst https://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=CX3tv9uKj1I https://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=CX3tv9uKj1I 26 Brown v Board of Education (1954) Find this picture 26 Brown v Board of Education (1954) Mendez vs. Westminster 1946 https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=juGzbgciQ3w Eight years before Brown vs. Board of Education in

Topeka Kansas, a similar case occurred in California. In Orange County, segregation was enforced by some local school districts. The Mendez family challenged this policy as they attempted to enroll their 9-year-old daughter into a whiteonly school. They won the case. A young Thurgood Marshall volunteered his time to help as a lawyer on the case. 26 Brown v Board of Education (1954) This is perhaps one of the top three most important and most famous supreme court decisions in U.S. history. Brown vs. Board of Education was a U.S. supreme court decision outlawing racial segregation of public education facilities. This effectively overturned the Plessy vs. Ferguson ruling. 26

Brown v Board of Education (1954) https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=TTGHLdr-iak Once again, Thurgood Marshall was a lawyer on the case. The ruling said that "separate but equal" public education could never truly provide black Americans with facilities of the same standards available to white Americans. 27 Murder of Emmett Till (1955) Boy from Chicago, Illinois who was murdered in Mississippi while his killers went free, adding fuel to the Civil Rights movement.

J.W. Milam Roy Bryant Juanita Milam Carolyn Bryant Find this picture 27

Murder of Emmett Till (1955) In Mississippi: 500 blacks have been lynched since 1882 From Chicago, Emmett was to spend summer with his uncle in Mississippi In a grocery store with friends he whistled at owner Carolyn Bryant Her husband returned later that week and was outraged Boy who was Bryant and his half-brother kidnapped the boy to teach him a lesson murdered in The men drove him to a shed one county over and brutally beat him Mississippi while They cut off an ear, gouged out an eye, and shot him with a pistol his killers went Then they tied a 75 lb cotton gin fan around his neck with barbed wire free, adding fuel and dropped him into the Tallahatchie River to the Civil Rights

12 white jurors acquitted (found innocent) the men in less than 1 hour movement. In a 1956 article in Look Magazine for which they were paid, JW Milam and Roy Bryant admitted to a journalist that he and his brother had killed Till They couldnt be tried again for the crime because of double jeopardy rights Milam said they wanted to scare Till with a pistol-whipping and threats Milam claimed that he didnt seem to believe they would really kill him, and had an J.W. Milam Roy Bryant unrepentant, defiant attitude towards them The brothers said they had no choice but to make an example of Till https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=OMdSYxZqIXc Juanita Mi Carolyn Brya lam nt 28 Rosa Parks Arrest (1955) Dec 1, 1955 The white section was full, so the driver demanded Rosa give up her seat to a white man, she refused, was arrested & fined. This triggered the

Montgomery Bus Boycott. This brought Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. to the forefront of the movement Find this picture https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=v8A9gvb5Fh0 29 Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956) Find this picture The day after the Rosa Parks arrest, 35,000 flyers were distributed. The flyers read, "We are asking every Negro to stay off the buses Monday in protest of the arrest and trial You can afford to stay out of school for one day. If you work, take a cab, or walk. But please, children and grown-ups, don't ride the bus at all on Monday. Please stay

off the buses Monday." 29 Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956) Find this picture https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=1QZik4CYtgw The Montgomery Bus Boycott lasted more than one full year, ending when a federal ruling declared the bus segregation policy to be unconstitutional. It gained national attention and is seen as a initiating moment of the civil rights movement. It also propelled Martin Luther King to the forefront of the movement. 31 Little Rock Nine (1957)

The Little Rock Nine was a group of black students that enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. The governor of Arkansas, Orval Faubus prevented them from entering. They finally attended after the intervention of President Eisenhower, dispite protests and death threats. https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=xERXusiEszs The Little R ock 9 Find this picture 32 Malcolm X & NYC beating incident (1957) https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=5Uoy6xy5AFM A major civil rights leader, Malcolm X was more associated with violent means of protest and

with racism toward whites, as opposed to MLKs nonviolence. He rose to prominence after a famous incident where NYPD beat and hospitalized three black men. Malcolm X saw whites as the enemy to blacks and enemy to the nation of Islam. But he abandoned traditional Islam to found his own sect called Islam Mosque, Inc. He was later assassinated by 3 members of the Nation of Islam. https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=cT1jLY20tLo https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=hhg6LxyTnY8 Find this picture http://www.teachers payteachers.com/P

roduct/Malcolm-X-l earning-to-read-pri mary-source-with-b ackground-guidingquestions-1107930 https://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=ENHP89mLWOY Violence or non-Violence? Which approach would be most effective in the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s 1960s and why? 34 The Sit-ins (1960) Various sit-ins started as early as 1957 as a way to peacefully protest segregation. These occurred in Wichita, Nashville, Oklahoma City and Durham. But the most famous sit-in was the 1960 sit-in at the Woolworths lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. The A&T Four endured taunting and abuse, but eventually their sit-in resulted in Woolworths desegregating their

lunch counters. Find this picture https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xbbcjn4d1cE The Sit-ins 37 Freedom Rides (1961) In 1961, CORE (Committee on Racial Equality) organized bus rides from Washington D.C. to the South. The purpose was to stage non-violent protests and civil disobedience to challenge segregation laws. Many of these riders were famously harassed, attacked and/or arrested by KKK members and local police forces. Freedom Rides continued during the following years as well. Find this picture 37 Freedom Rides (1961)

FIRST FREEDOM RIDES - Bus on its way to Birmingham, Alabama Police chief conspired with KKK members to harass Freedom Riders The Greyhound bus was firebombed in Anniston, Alabama, forcing those Freedom Riders to exit where they were viciously beaten When another bus reached Birmingham, other Freedom Riders were also viciously beaten by Klan members under police protection All 19 protesters from this bus boarded a plane for New Orleans the next day rather than continue to subject themselves to mob violence Nashville Student Movement demonstrators picked up where the original Freedom Riders left off by sending cars full of replacements to sit in at the Greyhound station in Birmingham (most were arrested) Find this picture https://www.yout ube.com/watch? v=1zBY6gkpbTg 35 Letter from a Birmingham Jail (1963) Find this picture

After a judge filed an injunction against marches and protests in Birmingham, Alabama, King marched anyway and was roughed up and arrested. While in jail, he wrote a now famous letter defending nonviolent resistance to racism, and that Christians are morally obligated to break unjust laws. https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=5K5XlCSUs6k 36 March on Washington (1963) The August 27th, 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was one of the largest political rallies in U.S. history. 200,000-300,000 citizens of all races (75% black) peacefully headed to the capital. Find this picture I have a dream

speech 36 March on Washington (1963) The rally was highlighted by Kings I Have a Dream speech at the Lincoln Memorial. The event is credited as helping to pass the 1964 Civil Rights Act and 1965 Voting Rights Act. https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=d7s30wFCqlw to h c ar m ple l

o e p ria o 0 ,00 Mem 0 25 oln 63 Linc 9 1 the March on Washington 38 24th Amendment (1964) Poll taxes emerged in the South during Reconstruction to keep former slaves from

voting. The Supreme Court upheld this as constitutional in the 1937 Breedlove v Suttles ruling. By the 1960s, five Southern states still had poll taxes for federal elections (Virginia, Alabama, Texas, Arkansas, and Mississippi). Find this picture 38 24th Amendment (1964) Proposed in 1962 and ratified in 1964, the 24th Amendment made payments and poll taxes for federal elections illegal. It was challenged on the grounds of state rights, but the Supreme Court upheld the new Amendment in 1966. Find this picture 39

Civil Rights Workers Killed (1964) In the Freedom Summer of 1964, three Civil Rights workers were shot at close range in Mississippi by KKK members. The state of Mississippi referred to prosecute anyone in the case, sparking national outrage and an FBI investigation. Freedom Summer = a campaign to register African-Americans to vote Find this picture 39 Civil Rights Workers Killed (1964) The FBI called the case Mississippi Burning and didnt find the bodies for a month and a half

later (they had been nearby where they had been shot). 18 people were charged, seven convicted with minor sentences. National outrage continued, contributing to the passes of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and 1965 Voting Rights Act. https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=a2XTXHKcUPY Freedom Summer = a campaign to register African-Americans to vote Find this picture 40 1964 Civil Rights Act The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Prohibited discrimination in public accommodations Withheld government funds that went to organizations that practice discrimination

Banned employer discrimination based on race, sex, religion, or national origin The federal government learned with prohibition that making a law is one thing, and enforcing it is quite another. Therefore, after the passage of this Civil Rights Act, several steps were taken to enforce the law. For example, the EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) was created to investigate job discrimination. Find this picture 41 Malcolm X Assassinated (1965) Find this picture Malcolm X was getting ready to speak an an Afro-American Unity meeting in Manhattan when someone yelled out Nigger! Get your hand outta my pocket! A man

approached him and shot him in the chest with a sawed-off shotgun. Two others came forward with semiautomatic handguns, finishing him off. Autopsy found 21 gunshot wounds on his body. 41 Malcolm X Assassinated (1965) Find this picture The shooters were from the Nation of Islam, the radical black Muslim group from which Malcolm X had previously broken away. All three were convicted. Somewhere between 20,000 and 30,000 people attended the funeral of Malcolm X. 42 Bloody Sunday (1965)

SNCC (Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee) and SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) planned non-violent marches to protest voting rights between Selma and Montgomery in March of 1965. who brought many prominent civil rights and civic leaders to support voting rights. Find this picture 42 Bloody Sunday (1965) In the first of three marches, 600 marchers were attacked by state and local police with clubs and tear gas, known as Bloody Sunday. In the second march (2 days later) police stopped 2,500 protesters at a bridge. In the third march (7 days after the second), 4,000 army

soldiers, Alabama National Guard, FBI agents and federal marshals protected the marchers for the tenmile stretch to Montgomery. Find this picture 43 1965 Voting Rights Act Voting Rights Act of 1965 Federal officials could register voters if local officials blocked registration Eliminated literacy tests before voting Find this picture 46 MLKJ Assassinated (1968) The killer: James Earl Ray Scene of his murder

300,000 at his funeral King was assassinated by James Earl Ray at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee on Thursday April 4, 1968. He was just 39 years old. Over 300,000 people attended Kings funeral. James Earl Ray in London a few months later and sentenced to 99 years in prison. Some believe that the assassination was a government conspiracy, but little evidence has surfaced to support it. Find this picture 46 MLKJ Assassinated (1968)

The killer: James Earl Ray Scene of his murder 300,000 at his funeral https://www.youtu be.com/watch?v= cmOBbxgxKvo Martin Luther King Jr., after his arrest in February of 1956, at the age of 27. He had been arrested during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The mug shot was found in July, 2004, during the cleaning out of a storage room at the Montgomery County Sheriff's Department. Someone had written "DEAD" twice on the picture, as well as 4-4-68, the date King was killed, though it is not known who wrote it. 48

L.A. Riots (1992) The 1992 Los Angeles Riots started on April 29, 1992 when a jury acquitted four white LAPD officers accused in the videotaped beating of black motorist Rodney King following a high-speed pursuit. Thousands of people in Los Angeles rioted for the next week. Widespread looting, assault, arson and murder occurred. Property damage was over $1 billion, thousands were injured and 53 people died. A similar event happened in 2009 in Oakland (though on a smaller scale) after an officer shot an unarmed black man. Find this picture https://www.youtu be.com/watch?v= SW1ZDIXiuS4 L.A. Riots 1992 https://www.yout ube.com/watch? v=ZfHVZaGFJl8 https://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=

P43WZd611WA Rodney 49 Obamas Presidency (2009-2017) Find this picture http://www.cbsnews.c om/news/what-exactly -is-black-enough/ Barrack Obama is a Former Illinois senator who became the 1st black president of the United States. This is a monumental achievement in the story of Civil Rights. But since he attended Columbia and has a mixed background, some questioned whether Obama was black enough to represent Black American Culture. What do you think?

50 Achievement Gap (Modern Day) The National Education Association defines the Achievement gap as, the differences between the test scores of minority and/or lowincome students and the test scores of their White and Asian peers. Across the nation, the average scores for black and Hispanic students is far lower than white and Asian students. This trend suggests that the fight for Civil Rights and equality has not fully arrived. Why do you think there is still an achievement gap? https://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=ipAnjlnEzKo Find this picture TED TALKS on the achievement gap

Other Civil Rights Movements Asian-American Civil Rights: In addition to being the target of racist settlers in California, early Chinese immigrants worked the hardest jobs for the lowest pay. Many died in explosions or cave-ins while digging tunnels in the Sierra Nevada Mountains for the railroads. Vietnamese immigrated to the U.S. in large numbers after the United States withdrew from the Vietnam War and were often the targets of hate. During World War II, all Japanese Americans (110,000) were taken from their communities and put in internment camps to avoid possible communication with our WWII enemy; the Japanese Empire. Most returned to find their property destroyed or sold. Following the Black Civil Rights movement, Japanese Civil Rights activists began to organize and seek retribution for their treatment, resulting in President Gerald Fords formal apology to the Japanese community (1976). And in 1988, President Ronald Reagan gave $20,000 to every former internee. Mexican-American Civil Rights: The Mexican-American Civil Rights movement began in the 1940s, but the extension of the movement went into the 1960s and is commonly called the Chicano Movement or El Movimiento. This included student walkouts, strikes and marches to protest treatment of Latinos in America. Cesar Chavez is probably the bestknown leader of this movement as he fought for better pay, treatment and working conditions for migrant farm workers. Native American Civil Rights: The 1960s and 1970s saw Native American communities protesting their poor treatment throughout American history. One group even staged an armed takeover of Alcatraz Island in San Francisco.

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