Civil Rights 1 After WWII, segregation continued in the U.S. De Jure Segregation-laws that segregated in schools, restaurants, and neighborhoods. De Facto Segregation-Segregation or discrimination by custom or behavior (lowpaying jobs, employment). Challenges to segregation: (1) FDR banned discrimination in defense industries during WWII in 1941. (2) President Truman desegregated the military after WWII in 1948. Civil Rights 2
(3) Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play major league baseball. (4) Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was established to end racial injustice. Civil Rights 3 In 1954, 21 states schools were segregated and the NAACP challenged school segregation in court. African American attorney Thurgood Marshall won the case of Brown v. Board of Education which banned segregation.
Segregated schools violated the 14th Amendment and were not separate but equal. In Little Rock, Arkansas, 9 African American students tried to attend Central High. Civil Rights 4 Gov. Faubus ordered the National Guard to stop them. President Eisenhower sent in Airborne and Army troops to enforce the Brown decision and let the Little Rock 9 attend school at Central High. Gov. Faubus backed down though parents and students gathered to insult and harass the students.
Little Rock 9 had to have soldier escorts to attend class. All but 1 graduated. In Montgomery Alabama, the bus system was largely used by African Americans. Civil Rights 5 The bus system was segregated. Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man, violating the law, and was arrested This sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The black community walked or carpooled rather than take the bus. Lasted a year. This bus boycott attracted a young preacher, Martin
Luther King Jr., who became leader of a new Civil Rights Movement. King formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and promoted non-violent protests. Civil Rights 6 In 1956, the Supreme Court ruled segregated busing unconstitutional though there remained widespread discrimination and segregation in society. Non-violent protests originated with Ghandi of India who protested against the British. The Civil Rights Movement adopted this strategy to
create change. Many restaurants had segregated sections and protesters began to have sit-ins: protesters would sit in white sections and refuse to leave. Woolworths lunch counter was the first sit-in. Civil Rights 7 Students participated in sit-ins and formed their own organization: Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Sit-ins proved effective in all states. While buses were desegregated, bus facilities were not.
Students organized Freedom Rides: protesters rode buses across states lines to protest segregation on interstate buses and bus facilities. Some of the buses were attacked and firebombed as they entered Alabama. Civil Rights 8 President Kennedy ordered his brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, to send police and state troopers to escort the buses. Universities were segregated and in 1962, James Meredith tried to attend the University of Mississippi. The Gov. of Mississippi resisted and when Meredith
arrived on campus a riot ensued resulting in 2 killed. President Kennedy sent in U.S. Marshals to protect Meredith until he graduated in 1963. Merediths friend, Medgar Evers, who helped him gain admittance was murdered the same year. His murderer, De La Beckwith was finally convicted in 1994 at age 73. Civil Rights 9 Albany Movement-protest against discrimination in Albany, Georgia. Sit-ins had proved effective because there were too many people to arrest.
Albany police chief Laurie Prichett made sure every jail in the area was available and was able to arrest everyone, including King. The Albany Movement was a failure. Focus then shifted to the most segregated city in the South-Birmingham Alabama. As the movement continued, adults could not afford to be arrested and lose their jobs. Civil Rights 10 King began to use more children in protests. In Birmingham, Police Chief Bull Connor used dogs and fire hoses to break up 2500 protesters.
King was arrested and TV captured the protests and arrests. Americans were shocked at the violent treatment of protesters and called on President Kennedy to take action. Kennedy called for major civil rights legislation. Civil Rights leaders planned a March on Washington to pressure the government to pass the Presidents bill. Civil Rights 11 200,000 protesters gathered on the Mall by the Lincoln Memorial as Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous speech, I Have A Dream.
3 weeks later, a bomb exploded in an SCLC church in Birmingham, killing 4 young African American girls. Then in November 1963, Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas. Vice President Lyndon Baines Johnson assumed the Presidency. LBJ called for passage of Kennedys civil rights legislation. Civil Rights 12 Although Senators blocked it for 80 days in a filibuster, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed. It banned segregation in public accommodations.
Gave government the power to desegregate schools. Outlawed discrimination in employment. Established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Many African Americans were still denied the right to vote. Southern states used literacy tests, poll taxes, and intimidation to prevent African Americans from voting. Civil Rights 12 Freedom Summer was formed by the SNCC with 1000 volunteers to get African Americans registered to vote in the South.
3 volunteers were murdered. The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party was formed as an alternative to the all white Democratic Party, with Fannie Lou Hamer among the leaders. They attended the Democratic Convention in 1964 but were refused a seat at the Convention. King and SCLC marched on Selma Alabama to pressure Congress to pass voting rights. Civil Rights 13 The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed. It banned literacy tests, allowed the federal government to oversee registration and
elections, and was extended to Hispanic voters in 1975. 24th Amendment-banned the poll tax. The Voting Rights Act increased African American participation in politics. Yet life was still difficult. Poverty and discrimination continued to plague urban areas. This led to riots in several cities. Civil Rights 14 The most famous was the Watts Riot in Los Angeles. It lasted 6 days involving 35,000 people. 34 were killed and 3000 arrested.
The Kerner Commission was formed to investigate the cause of the riots. They cited discrimination as the most important cause. Yet with the Vietnam War on, little money was available to spend on the Commissions programs. As the 60s progressed, new African Americans leaders questioned Kings non-violent protests. Civil Rights 15 One was Malcolm X, who was a minister in the Nation of Islam that called for African Americans to break from white society.
Also known as Black Muslims, Malcolm X promoted violence in pressured. After studying in Saudi Arabia, Malcolm X returned to the U.S. and began supporting Kings non-violent strategy. Malcolm X was assassinated in 1965. Conflicts began to develop between civil rights groups. Civil Rights 16 Stokely Carmichael of the SNCC began to question non-violence. Black Power-political and economic power for African Americans.
Many viewed Black Power as promoting violence. Black Panthers-formed by Bobby Seale and rejected non-violence and were a militant symbol of African Americans. Often armed, Black Panthers called for violent revolution and had several shootouts with police. King continued to advocate non-violent protests. Civil Rights 17 In 1968 King went to Memphis to promote a Poor Peoples Campaign and lend support to striking sanitation workers. He was assassinated by James Earl Ray as he was leaving
his hotel. Riots erupted in 120 cities in the U.S. The riots left 46 dead, 2600 injured, and 21,000 arrested. Civil Rights began to address not only legal equality but economic equality. King had planned a Poor Peoples Campaign in Washingto D.C. before his death. Upon his death, Ralph Abernathy led the SCLC and the campaign. Civil Rights 18 Bad weather, poor media relations, and gang members caused the movement to be disbanded by
police with tear gas. The campaign was a failure. Many Americans and the FBI began to look upon Black Power as a possible Communist threat. Gradually, Black Panther members were arrested or killed in shootouts. Others left the country. Civil Rights Act of 1968-banned discrimination in housing. While Brown v. Board banned legal segregation, there was still de facto segregation in schools. Civil Rights 19 Busing-courts began to require black students to
be bused to white schools and white students to be bused to black schools. This caused violent reactions in many cities and caused many whites to leave cities for the suburbs. Affirmative Action-laws that gave preference to minorities in employment and school admissions to make up for past discrimination. Bakke v. University of California-1970s court ruled that Affirmative Action is reverse discrimination in some instances.
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Form. of customs . declaration (includingits impact on the return formalities) Use of . pre-lodged. CD . with. super-reduced. dataset. as a . temporary. storage. declaration. Other issues (e.g. Article 144 DA) Priority >> Amendments with IT impact. Main issues...
Sacagawea with Lewis and Clark during their expedition of 1804-06 (colour litho) by Wyeth, Newell Convers (1882-1945) Mayer, 2005 - Knowledge construction is a sense-making activity in which the learner seeks to build a coherent mental representation from the presented...
The antonym of utopia. An imaginary place where people lead dehumanized, fearful, oppressed, miserable, violent lives etc. 451. Dytstopian Concepts. Totalitarian dictatorship. Glorification and justification of violence. Technology replaces humanity.
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