Citations and bibliographies - University of Brighton
Learning Resource Centre Information Skills tutorial Citations and bibliographies Information Services Before you begin
This presentation is intended to be a basic guide only Please check your Schools policy on referencing you should find this in your Student handbook Or consult your tutor Why reference?
to support an argument or claim you are making to acknowledge other peoples ideas or work to show evidence of the breadth and depth of your own reading to avoid being accused of plagiarism Citations
referring to other peoples work in your own work is known as citing a list is given at the end of your work, of all the items you refer to the citations should contain sufficient information for someone else to be able to trace the item Citations
keep a careful record of all the items you read as you read them take the details from the title page or reverse, not the front cover if you keep the list on a computer you can keep it in alphabetical order
this is known as a bibliography Reference lists v bibliographies a reference list is a list of all the items you have mentioned in your essay or work - in alphabetical order a bibliography is a complete list of all the above PLUS everything you have read around the subject that
has helped you to write your essay or work Bibliographies use the Harvard referencing system! links on Google www.google.com enter Harvard referencing and click UK only
Books single author McCavity, Phil (1980): Dentistry today. London, Association of Dentists. Books two authors Bull, J and M Gate (1989): Breeding
dairy cows. London, United Farming Press. Books 3 or more authors Builder, Bob, et al (1993): Construction practice. London, Town House Publications. et al means and others in Latin your tutor may prefer you to list ALL
the authors instead check first Corporate authors Put the name of the organisation as the author: Institute of Waste Management (1995): Ways to improve recycling.
Northampton, Institute of Waste Management. Books - editors Beanstalk, Jack (ed.) (1986): Success with vegetables. Oxford, Giant Co. 2 authors from the same year
Put the titles in alphabetical order and call the references a, b, c, etc. Brett, P. (2002a): Bench joinery. Cheltenham, Stanley Thornes. Brett, P. (2002b): Site carpentry and joinery level 2. Cheltenham, Stanley Thornes.
A chapter/article within a book Ewbank, R (1999): Animal welfare, in Management and welfare of farm animals. 4th ed, Wheathampstead, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, p.1-15. for page numbers, use p.25, pp.94-191 or :94-191 or ,94-191
Journal articles put the title of the article in quotes put the name of the Journal in italics Shaw, Philip (2005): Estimating local extinction rates over successive timeframes, Biological Conservation, 121 (2), 281-7. Newspaper articles
same as journal articles but if there is no author (e.g. a short news item) use the Newspaper name as a corporate author Guardian, The (2005): Guardian appeal tops 1.5m. The Guardian. 19 January 2005, p.2. A thesis or dissertation
similar to a book reference - Brown, Michael (1980): The problems of making and maintaining a medieval style garden today. M.A. Thesis, Birkbeck. Reports
similar to a book reference: Curry, Donald (2002): Farming and food: A sustainable future: Report of the policy commission on the future of food and farming. London, Cabinet Office. British Standards
British Standards Institute (1984): Nursery stock Part 4: Specification for forest trees. BS3936-4. London: BSI. Government publication Similar to a corporate author reference: Department for Environment, Food
and Rural Affairs (2004): Improving lamb survival. London, DEFRA. CD-ROM The Keyskill Company (1999): Vetlogic: The skeletal system. [CD ROM] Stroud, The Keyskill Company. WWW document
Dogbreedinfo.com (1998-2005): English Foxhound. [Online] Available from http://www.dogbreedinfo.com/engli shfoxhound.htm [Accessed 27 January 2005]. Other types of material...
legislation Patents unpublished material (grey literature) electronic material videos, films e-journals. etc etc References and citations within your work
White and Gilbert say Using a detailed soil strategy is an essential part of the habitat creation planning process (White and Gilbert, 2003, p.55). OR: White and Gilbert (2003) point out that a soil strategy is a necessary part of planning. Use 3 dots for a word/part of a word within a direct quote to show where you are missing out
sections/words of the quote (4 dots . If the omission includes a full stop). Citing references to resources you have not actually seen state in your text that Colin Smith (Gibbs and Carroll, 1978, p.7) says .
put the Gibbs and Carroll book and page number(s) in your bibliography If you cant find the details author not given [anon]
no place (sine loco) [s.l.] no publisher (sine nomine) [s.n.] no date [n.d.] not known [n.k.] With thanks to..
Learning Resources Services, UCN (2003): Referencing guide questions and answers the Harvard system. University of Northampton. http://library.northampton.ac.uk/subjects/subj ect.php?sid=28&pid=1 [Accessed 8 December 2006]. The Library, University of Sheffield (2000): Writing a bibliography. [Online] Available from www.shef.ac.uk/library/libdocs/hsldvc1.pdf [Accessed 2 September 2005]. Thank you!
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