CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering

CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering

CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering Mrs. Dowling CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 1 CIEH, 2006 Food safety and hygiene Food Poisoning Food Poisoning can be caused by: Harmful bacteria Harmful substances such as poisonous plants or fungi, chemical,

metals etc What are the main symptoms of Food Poisoning ? Stomach cramps Nausea (feeling sick) Diarrhea Vomiting Other possible symptoms may include: Fever

Abdominal pain CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 2 CIEH, 2006 Generally, the symptoms of food poisoning are unpleasant and last from 24 hours to several days, sometimes a bit longer. For most of us the effects are not serious, but for some people, food poisoning or food borne illness can be life threatening What groups of people do you think are

particularly at risk from food poisoning or food borne illness? Very young people Elderly people Pregnant women and unborn babies People who are ill or recovering from illness At greater risk are those people who: Have immune systems which are not working well Cannot fight illness CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 3 CIEH, 2006

Legislation There are two main pieces of legislation that you need to be aware of relating to Food Hygiene: The Food Safety Act (1990) The Food Hygiene (England) Regulations (2006) Plus, also The Weights and Measures Act (1985) (this does not relate to Food Hygiene, but to weighing and measuring food and beverage products) CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 4 CIEH, 2006 Role of enforcement officers The job titles of the people who may inspect a Catering establishment are: Environmental Health Officers / Food Safety Officers

Trading Standards Officers They each slightly different jobs. An EHO will cover Food Safety, but also other areas such as noise population, body exhumations and so on. A FSO specializes in Food Hygiene and Safety A TSO focuses on food and drink being sold as it is described, e.g., that it is the weight on the packaging, that if a sausage says it is 65% pork, that this is the case, and that it does not in fact contain 30% pork meat. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 5 CIEH, 2006

EHOs and FSOs both have a similar function when it comes to Food Safety and Hygiene: To: provide food safety advice inspect food premises enforce legislation covering food Powers of Enforcement Officers enter and inspect food and premises investigate outbreaks of food-borne disease and possible offences

remove suspect food and have it destroyed if it is considered to be unsafe to eat serve improvement and prohibition notices take food businesses to court for breaking food safety laws. The EHOs and FSOs can issue a

Hygiene Improvement Notice and / or a Hygiene Emergency Prohibition Notice. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 6 CIEH, 2006 Hygiene Improvement Notice This is used when a food premise needs to improve something that is substandard. e.g., a broken tap, or cracked tiles on the walls. Hygiene Emergency Prohibition Notice This can apply to: Premises (prohibiting the use of the premises due to a pest infestation)

Part of Premises (e.g., prohibiting the use of a food store without a proper roof) equipment (e.g., prohibiting the use of a griddle for cooking burgers hat is not working properly) The Prohibition Notice can also apply to a person (e.g., prohibiting someone who has run a food business unsafely n the past from running one again in the future). What happens if a catering establishment does something wrong? Depending on the severity of what they have done, the EHOs and FSOs can: Prohibit them from using part of the business (equipment, system or area) Prohibition from running a food business Fines, legal costs and compensation

Criminal record Prison Pretty severe eh but then Food Poisoning can kill CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 7 CIEH, 2006 Food Handlers Food handler legal requirements keep yourself clean keep the workplace clean protect food from contamination or anything that could cause harm follow good personal hygiene practices e.g. hand washing wear appropriate protective clothing tell your employer if you are

suffering from or are a carrier of a food-borne illness CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 8 CIEH, 2006 Due diligence A food business must be able to demonstrate that it has done everything within its power to safeguard consumer health As a food handler when should you wash your hands? Hand washing is one of the most important actions you can take to help prevent contamination and food poisoning and food borne

illness. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 9 CIEH, 2006 Before: Starting work Handling high risk foods After:

Visiting the lavatory Handling raw eggs or raw foods Coughing or sneezing Touching hair or face Cleaning or touching chemical containers Dealing with rubbish Eating, drinking and smoking How do you wash your hands? Not only is it important to wash your hands often, but it is also important to wash them properly. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 10 CIEH, 2006

Here are some tips: Always use a hand basin provided exclusively for this purpose. Use hot water and liquid soap Work the soap into your hands rubbing them together vigorously for 15-20 seconds. Clean the back of your hands, between your fingers and wrists. Clean your nails with a nail brush (preferably a disposable one) after handling raw food. Rinse your hands before drying them use disposable paper towels. Protective Clothing What is the

purpose of protective clothing? CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 11 CIEH, 2006 To protect the food from the handler What properties should protective clothing have?

Light in colour (so that dirt can be seen). Washable No pockets No buttons or potential physical contaminants Disposable (where appropriate) CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 12 CIEH, 2006 Give examples of the types of protective clothing that food handlers should wear. Think about the items of protective clothing you have given, note down reasons for wearing them. Hat / hair net stops hands touching hair (sources of staphylococcus aureus) and stops hair falling into the food (physical hazard) Beard snood as above, but for facial hair

CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 13 CIEH, 2006 Protective clothing (cont.) Apron / chefs jacket / trousers to protect the food from contamination that might be on the food handlers clothes. Dedicated shoes or overshoes to stop any contamination from the sols of outdoor shoes from entering the kitchen. Also for health and safety reasons to prevent slips. Gloves if the product being handled might cause dermatitis. There should be no need to wear gloves if the hands are kept clean. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 14 CIEH, 2006 What other personal hygiene practices do you think food

handlers should follow? Tell the manager before work if they have suffered from diarrhoea, vomiting or skin problems. Cover cuts and sores with waterproof, high visibility dressing. Do not wear jewellery or nail varnish CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 15 CIEH, 2006 Do not eat, smoke or drink whist working Do not cough, spit or pick nose in food area. Do not breathe on glassware or cutlery to

help to polish it. Hazards A hazard can be classed in 3 ways: physical such a glass in food chemical e.g., cleaning chemicals in foods biological e.g., salmonella in chicken CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 16 CIEH, 2006 Examples

Cardboard P A staple P A paperclip P A mouse dropping P B A fly P B A piece of human hair P B A metal nail P

A piece of glass P A plaster P A pen top P An earring P Some washing up liquid C A wet leaf P B Bleach C Out of date chicken breast B Sometimes the contaminant may fall into more than one category, e.g., mouse droppings is both physical and biological. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 17 CIEH, 2006 Food poisoning Food poisoning is caused by the biological type of poisoning, and can be caused by: natural poisons in food itself

micro-organisms bacteria viruses moulds and fungi chemicals/metals CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 18 CIEH, 2006 Natural poisons Wild mushrooms Green potato solanine CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 19 CIEH, 2006

Red kidney beans haemagglutinin Micro-organisms There are different types of micro-organisms associated with food borne illnesses. Bacteria and viruses cannot be seen, smelt or tasted. Therefore, food handlers must learn how to control these hazards. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 20 CIEH, 2006 Sources of bacteria Bacteria live on and in our bodies and are everywhere in the natural world. Sources of

bacteria known to cause food poisoning are: Contaminated raw foods meat, poultry, eggs, fish, the outside of fruit and vegetables. Pests and pets Air Dirt and dust CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 21 CIEH, 2006 Refuse (rubbish) and waste People (food handlers, visitors, customers), bacteria live in huge quantities in our intestines and come out in faeces. This happens in everyone,

not just people who are ill. Bacteria is also on skin and come from contaminated clothing. Do you think it is safe to eat the following? Rare beef Raw eggs Raw fish Shellfish? CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 22 CIEH, 2006

Sources of bacteria The three types of bacteria are: Pathogenic (these are the harmful ones) Helpful these are used to make beer, cheese, yoghurt, ferment meat for salami Spoilage these cause foods to rot / perish. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 23 CIEH, 2006 Now we will discuss the 7 most common bacteria and one virus

These are: Campylobacter Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus Salmonella E. coli O157 Clostridium perfringens Listeria monocytogenes Norovirus CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 24 CIEH, 2006 Where do we find these bacterias and viruses? Campylobacter

Found in raw meat and poultry CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 25 CIEH, 2006 Staphylococcus aureus Found on the skin, in cuts and boils and up the nose Transferred to food from hands, nose and mouth CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 26 CIEH, 2006 Bacillus cereus

Found in the soil and dust Frequently in rice dishes. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 27 CIEH, 2006 Salmonella CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 28 CIEH, 2006 Found in raw meat, unwashed vegetables, poultry and unpasteurised eggs

E. Coli 0157 Found in the gut of animals and humans (E means Escherichia) Found in raw and undercooked meats and raw vegetables CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 29 CIEH, 2006 Clostridium perfringens From animal faeces Found in the soil, manure, sewage, raw meat and poultry

CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 30 CIEH, 2006 Listeria CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 31 CIEH, 2006 Found in soil, water, salads, vegetables, uncooked meats and poultry, dairy products, soft cheeses and unpasteurised juices. Norovirus It is spreads from person to person through faeces

and vomit the virus is passed through contaminated food and water, particularly seafood - oysters, mussels, clams, cockles and scallops CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 32 CIEH, 2006 Clostridium Botulinum works by interfering with nerve function leading to muscle failure Found in canned meats and fish, which are not processed correctly

Very rare nowadays! CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 33 CIEH, 2006 Turn to booklet and find page 12. A hazard can be classed in 3 ways: Ph_____________ Ch_____________ Bi______________ Complete questions 1 to 8 CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 34 CIEH, 2006

Multiplication of Bacteria Binary fission One bacterium becomes two, two become four, four become eight and so on. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 35 CIEH, 2006 The right conditions For bacteria to multiply they need: Food Moisture Warmth Time CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 36 CIEH, 2006

The right conditions .. Time Under the right conditions bacteria can double every 10 to 20 minutes. Warmth When the temperature is between 8 to 63OC bacteria will multiply rapidly this is known as the danger zone. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 37 CIEH, 2006 Moisture Bacteria needs moisture to multiply, this is why it is important to make sure

surfaces are dry. It is also one of the reasons why the sink area of the kitchen (think damp dishcloths) often has the highest levels of bacteria. Food Bacteria needs food to be able to multiply, it prefers protein rich foods but can survive on dirt or a tiny drop of blood. Now, turn to your booklet and complete pages 16 and 17. Give examples of protein rich foods that bacteria can thrive on At what temperature do you think most bacteria will multiply quickest? _____________________________ Why?

________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________ CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 38 CIEH, 2006 Temperature Control and Monitoring Based on your knowledge of catering operations, and using the Activity sheet 3.7 answer the following questions: When is temperature control and monitoring important? What critical temperatures do you monitor? On the scale on the sheet, can you suggest what the different temperatures indicate? You need the 3.7 Activity Sheet to complete these tasks

CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 39 CIEH, 2006 Spore formers Some bacteria have a special mechanism to survive. They are able to produce spores. Can you remember which bacteria are spore formers? C____________ p__________ B_________ C________ CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 40 CIEH, 2006 High-risk foods, what do they have in common?

CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 41 CIEH, 2006 High-risk foods ready to eat moist high in protein require strict time and temperature control CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 42 CIEH, 2006 What does contamination mean? A contaminant is any substance or object in food that makes the food harmful or objectionable.

Contamination in food is the presence of pathogenic micro-organisms or objectionable substances. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 43 CIEH, 2006 and how about cross contamination? Cross-contamination occurs when bacteria are transferred from a contaminated source e.g., raw meat to a ready to eat food product.

Cross contamination can be; Direct, e.g., blood drip, raw touching cooked Indirect, e.g., from a knife, cutting board Cross contamination usually involves a vehicle of contamination something that helps the bacteria to travel from one surface to another. Common vehicles of contamination include: Hands Utensils and equipment such as knives, chopping boards any surface that has not been cleaned properly between uses. Handles of doors, refrigerators, cupboards etc. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 44 CIEH, 2006 Cross-contamination Raw to cooked food

CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 45 CIEH, 2006 When is temperature control and monitoring important? For chilled and frozen food storage and display, goods in checks (deliveries) cooking, cooling. What critical temperatures do you monitor? These include: Chilled products in storage (below 8OC, but good practice is below 5OC) Cooking to core temp 75OC If you dont (sometimes 70 or 72OC) for at

remember anything least 30 secs) else, remember these Hot rinse disinfection (82OC) Hot holding 63OC temperatures Food needs to be kept out of the danger zone, because this is where bacteria multiplication occurs most rapidly. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 46 CIEH, 2006 Temperatures . in C O 100oC Boiling point bacteria die

82oC Disinfect 63oC Upper limit of danger zone 37oC Body temperature, bacteria will multiply 8oC Lower limit of danger zone / maximum refrigeration temp.

0oC Bacteria dormant -18oC Freezer temperature CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 47 CIEH, 2006 Temperature measuring devices hard probe thermometer CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 48 CIEH, 2006 infra-red probe (gun type)

thermometer Using a temperature probe Should be: inserted into the centre of the food product (the area which is least likely to be cooked) cleaned and disinfected between use CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 49 CIEH, 2006 Cooking, hot holding and reheating of foods Safe cooking temperatures Most bacteria are killed if they reach 75OC for at least 30 seconds. It is important that foods are cooked thoroughly

and the target temperature is achieved throughout. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 50 CIEH, 2006 Why? If this is not achieved, then undercooked foods will enable bacteria to survive. Cooking, hot holding and reheating of foods, cont. Re-heating foods safely Wherever possible do not cook, cool, store and then re-heat food. Cook and serve is

always the safest method. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 51 CIEH, 2006 What could happen if the food is not reheated thoroughly? Bacteria can survive Bacteria remain in the danger zone Bacteria multiply Spores may germinate resulting in bacteria being present Cooking, hot holding and reheating of foods, cont. QUESTION If foods are cooked,

cooled and then reheated, how many times have they gone through the danger zone? CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 52 CIEH, 2006 ANSWER Three times The more times the foods go through the danger zone the more opportunity any bacteria present will have to multiply and produce toxins. Remember toxins are not always destroyed by heat.

Re-heating the golden rules Sometimes, re-heating foods is unavoidable. To do so safely there are two golden rules: Foods should be reheated to temperatures of at least 75OC Food should be re-heated only once CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 53 CIEH, 2006 Hot Holding Hot holding, by law must be at or above 63OC. If the temperature of the

food drops to below 63OC, it must be sold within 2 hours or destroyed because of the potential for bacterial survival and multiplication. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 54 CIEH, 2006 Time to test yourself .. Complete p.28 of your booklet CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 55 CIEH, 2006 What is the best way to cool hot food quickly? By using a blast chiller,

however these are expensive. If a blast chiller is not available other ways to cool food to 5OC or less within 90 minutes include the following: CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 56 CIEH, 2006 Divide the food into smaller portions and put into shallow trays Place in an ice water bath, away from contamination Stir to speed up the process of cooling Make up a concentrate product and then add ice to dilute

When chilling food you should make sure it is covered to protect it from contamination. Safe methods for defrosting foods You can defrost foods in a: Chiller (<5OC) Microwave (following the manufacturers instructions) The container you use for the defrosting should be dedicated for the purpose and clean. If thawing in a chiller, cover the food and remember that the juices can build up so select an appropriate container and place within the chiller, to avoid crosscontamination. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 57 CIEH, 2006 Safe methods for defrosting foods. Cont.

Allow enough time for thawing large items such as chickens may need 24 to 48 hours. Do not re-freeze thawed foods because each time the food passed through the danger zone bacteria can multiply and the risk of food poisoning increases. Check before cooking to ensure the product is completely defrosted. This can be done with a probe or by a visual / manual check, for example checking joints of poultry are pliable CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 58 CIEH, 2006 Date Marking All pre-packed foods come with a date indication on the label. These are either: Use-by or

Best before dates CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 59 CIEH, 2006 Use-by dates Use-by date on ready-to-eat foods it is a criminal offence to sell food past its use-by date Best Before dates Best-before dates usually appear on canned, dried and frozen products. It is not an automatic offence to sell foods past best-before date, but their safety and quality could be

compromised, e.g., biscuits can go rancid or soggy. Why do you think it is against the law to sell foods past their use-by dates? Use-by dates are found on high risk foods likely to cause food poisoning, i.e., those that: are ready to eat are moist are high in protein require chilling have a short shelf life By going over the use-by date such foods have exceeded their critical time limit within which the product might be considered safe. Thereafter the bacterial load might be sufficient to cause food poisoning. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 60

CIEH, 2006 What should you do if you find food that is past its use by date? Dispose of it immediately If an enforcement officer finds foods past its use by date in catering premises he / she will presume it to be for sale and so the caterer could be prosecuted. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 61 CIEH, 2006 Safe food handling and storage conditions Stock rotation is FIFO first in first out is undertaken to ensure food the golden rule of stock

is safe and not wasted rotation. Use products with the Check temperatures for shorter shelf lives first by goods in (in chilled or bringing them to the front frozen) of the shelves and place When handling foods or those with longer shelf ingredients that would lives to the back. normally be refrigerated, always ensure they are put back into the refrigerator as quickly possible. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 62

CIEH, 2006 Chilled foods principles of safe storage Clean chiller (including seals) and defrost regularly to avoid dirt and ensure efficiency cover and label food keep food tidy and orderly dont over stock FIFO CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 63 CIEH, 2006 Dont place warm food in a chiller separate raw and readyto-eat foods decant food from original

metal tins if only using some of the contents, and transfer into a food safe container with a lid, marking the container clearly Frozen foods principles of safe storage Defrost and clean the freezer regularly to avoid ice build up and ensure efficient running cover and label food CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 64 CIEH, 2006

keep food tidy and orderly dont over stock dont place arm food in a freezer FIFO Dry goods - principles of safe storage Stock to be kept off the floor and away from the Ventilation allows the air walls, ideally on shelving to circulate and helps to allow cleaning sops moulds and fungi underneath and access building up for pest treatments

Light to be able to check beneath and behind. cleanliness, signs of post stock control and rotation infestation and date Check stocks regularly, marks. ideally daily but at least weekly to ensure FIFO. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 65 CIEH, 2006 Food Allergies and intolerances What types of foods are linked to food allergy and intolerance?

CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 66 CIEH, 2006 Peanuts Tree nuts Eggs Shellfish Cows milk Wheat (gluten) Soy

Allergic Reactions Allergic reactions include: CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 67 CIEH, 2006 Tingling around the mouth Swelling around the mouth, nose and throat Difficulty breathing Rashes Vomiting Diarrhoea Cramps Cleaning Food premises must be kept clean. High standards of

hygiene are key to ensuring food safety. KEY TERMS Cleaning is the process of making something free of dirt and contamination. A detergent is a chemical that can be used to dissolve and remove dirt. A disinfectant is used to reduce micro-organisms to safe levels. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 68 CIEH, 2006 A sanitiser is a chemical that both cleans and disinfects Sterilisation is the removal or destruction of all microorganisms including spores. It

is rarely used in kitchens, but in the past kitchens, especially in hospitals were fitted with sterlising sinks fed with steam and hot water. To clean or to disinfect? It is important to remember that even if something looks clean it could still be contaminated. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 69 CIEH, 2006 ACTIVITY Look at Activity sheet 9.2. Look at the different types

of objects and surfaces and decide which you think need cleaning and which need cleaning and disinfecting. p36 Wet Cleaning Wet cleaning involves six stages: Prepare remove loose and heavy soiling

Clean with hot water and detergent Rinse with clean hot water to remove any traces of detergent or dirt Disinfect use chemical disinfectant and leave on for the correct contact time Final rinse with clean, hot water Dry if possible, leave items to dry naturally in the air. If you use a cloth, use disposable paper towels or a clean, dry fabric cloth used just once before being laundered again. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 70 CIEH, 2006 Cloths Cloths are a common

source of contamination for this reason, single use, disposable cloths are recommended. If these are not available you need to make sure the cloths that you use are clean and fit for the purpose. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 71 CIEH, 2006 Different types of cloths should be used for different jobs. Use a: Chefs cloth / oven gloves for holding hot items

Dish cloth for washing up dishes Single use cloths for wiping surfaces, mopping up spills, wiping hands and wiping sides of dishes before serving. Cleaning Schedules Cleaning schedules describe cleaning tasks to be completed at regular intervals, not covered by clean as you go activity during the course of your work. The intervals could be: Daily e.g., floors and bins Weekly e.g., the inside of the refrigerator Monthly or quarterly e.g., ceilings CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 72 CIEH, 2006

Washing Facilities Food businesses are requited by law to provide: Hand wash facilities with hot and cold water, soap and drying facilities. These should be located in a place that is conveniently accessible to the food handlers. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 73 CIEH, 2006 Separate food and equipment sinks with hot and cold water are required, although in very

small businesses, the same sink could be used if the activities are separated by time. Common Food Pests A common food pest is any creature that lives on, or in, human food causing damage or contamination, or both. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 74 CIEH, 2006 What are the common food pests? Rats Mice Cockroaches

Birds Ants Flies Stored product pests They might also include animals that scavenge from food businesses, e.g., Squirrels Foxes Infestation and Pests Control It is important to prevent an infestation of food pests because they: CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 75 CIEH, 2006 Transmit diseases

Contaminate foods (bodies, hair, faeces, urine etc) Damage the structure of premises and equipment Pest infestations can lead to businesses being taken to court, fines and possible closure of business. What do you think are the signs of a pest infestation?

Live or dead bodies Droppings Unusual smells Scratching, pecking or gnawing sounds Gnawed pipes, cables, fittings, bricks etc Torn or damaged packaging Spilled food Eggs, larvae, pupae, feathers, fur, nesting material Paw or claw prints Smears and rat runs CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 76 CIEH, 2006

You can prevent infestation by: Keeping the business clean Covering foods at all times Storing the food off the ground and in pest-proof containers. Checking incoming goods carefully Checking regularly for signs of an infestation Rotating stock Keeping well fitting lids on bins Keeping door and window screens closed CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 77 CIEH, 2006 You can control pests by the following treatments:

Electronic fly killers Monitors (bat removal / sticky surfaces) Traps Insecticide spray Pesticide baits CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 78 CIEH, 2006 HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control points) What is a hazard? In food production, a hazard is anything that can cause harm to a customer.

CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 79 CIEH, 2006 A hazard can be classed in 3 ways: Biological e.g., salmonella in chicken Chemical e.g., cleaning chemicals in foods Physical - such a glass in food Controls What types of controls do you think might be used in the making of food in a Catering environment?

Quality Temperature Bacterial Weight, size, shape Foreign bodies Hygiene Cost CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 80 CIEH, 2006 Some of these are very important to ensure that our food is safe to eat. These particular controls are called Critical Controls. What is a Critical Control Point? A control point is the

step in the making process where the hazard must be controlled. This step has to be carried out correctly to make sure the hazard is removed or reduced to a safe level. Remember, the hazard can be biological, chemical or physical. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 81 CIEH, 2006 When the hazard is high risk the control points are called Critical Control Points (CCPs) because it is critical (essential) that the hazard

is removed or reduced. An example would be in the making of: Rice and Salmon Salad. HACCP Hazard analysis and critical control points This was introduced when the Food Safety Act of 1990 was passed. This act introduced the term due diligence which means that you must prove that you have taken all possible precautions to ensure the food is safe. CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 82

CIEH, 2006 Definition: HACCP is a system to identify specific hazards and risks associated with food production and to describe ways to control these hazards. Act to ensure that the food you make, serve or sell is safe to eat CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 83 CIEH, 2006 NEED TO CONTINUE FROM HERE CIEH Level 2 Award in Food Safety in Catering: slide 84

CIEH, 2006

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