Chinese Philosophies & Doctrines: 100 Schools of Thought Confucianism, Daoism & Legalism Confucianism 522 B.C.E- Confucius begins to teach (Founder Kongfuzi...Confucius) Taught social harmony and good government would come to China if
people lived according to principles of ethics, good conduct and moral judgment Do not do unto others as you would not want others to do unto you Main Beliefs Focus on Harmony in Society through 5 Basic
Friend/Friend 5 Basic Relationships Each relationship had certain responsibilities to follow (479 B.C.E- teachings were collected into works called Analects) All relationships (except the last), involve the authority of one person over another Power and the right to rule belong to superiors over subordinates
Each person has to give obedience and respect to "superiors The "superior," however, owes loving responsibility to the inferior and must set a good example 5 Basic Relationships Ruler Subjects
Are loyal Acts justly Strivestheir Serve to improve ruler the welfare of his people Honor their ruler because of his position
Is worthy and character of loyalty 5 Basic Relationships Parent(son) Child (father) Is Shows
kind respect (filial piety) Accepts Gives protection fathers guidance Cares Provides for Education him in old age and performs the customary burial ceremonies 5 Basic Relationships
Husband Wife Carries Looks after out his the family home duties Is obedient honorable and faithful Diligently Provides for
meets his wife the needs and family of her husband and children 5 Basic Relationships Elder (teacher, older Younger brother)
(student, Sets an example of refinement younger and good behavior brother) Shows consideration toward younger Respects the people
character and experience of the elder Defers to the advice of those with more experience 5 Basic Relationships Friend Friend
Is equal to his friend and Is must equalhave to his friend respect for him and must have respect for him Legalism Major Beliefs Founder- Hanfeizi (200s
B.C.E.) Like Confucianism stressed importance of an orderly society, but in the opposite way Belief in highly efficient and powerful government along with harsh law were the key to restoring power Legalism Major Beliefs
People were by nature selfish and untrustworthy thus peace and prosperity only achieved by threatening severe punishment Daoism (Taoism) Daoist ideas traced to teachings of a scholar named Laozi 500 B.C.E. emerges as a major philosophy
Emphasized harmony with nature- rejected formal social structures and idea that people must fill specific roles in society Daoism (Taoism) People should renounce worldly
ambitions and turn to nature and the Dao (the Way), universal force that guides all things Where Confucianism provided ones place in the social order, Daoism emphasized harmony within the individual, one could be both Yin & Yang Chinese theory related to Daoism Two opposing forces believed to
be present in all nature Yin- cool, dark, female, and submissive Yang- warm, light, male, and aggressive For harmony the two must be in balance Practice: Who Said it?
Confucianist, Daoist or Legalist? Who Said It? Confucianist or Daoist or Legalist? Heaven is long lasting and earth is enduring. The reason why heaven and earth can live long and endure is that they do not live only for themselves. Daoist
Who Said It? Confucianist or Daoist or Legalist? To govern is to set things right. If you begin by setting yourself right, who will dare to deviate from the right? Confucianist Who Said It? Confucianist or Daoist or Legalist?
"The only way for a ruler to rule is with an iron fist and pen to write strict laws." Legalist Who Said It? Confucianist or Daoist or Legalist? Indeed, customs differ between the past and the present. To try to govern the people of a chaotic age with benevolence and lenient measures is like trying to drive
wild horses without reins and whips. Legalist Who Said It? Confucianist or Daoist or Legalist? When the people are subjected to overmuch government, the land is thrown into confusion. Daoist
Who Said It? Confucianist or Daoist or Legalist? China without a recognizable leader is preferable to foreigners with all their leaders. Confucianist Who Said It? Confucianist or Daoist or Legalist?
The highest good is like water. Water benefits all things generously and is without strife. Daoist Who Said It? Confucianist or Daoist or Legalist? Leave all things to take their natural course and do not interferewhat is contrary to the Way soon perishes.
Daoist Who Said It? Confucianist or Daoist or Legalist? "People respond to punishment and rewards, not other people's behavior." Legalist Who Said It?
Confucianist or Daoist or Legalist? Sometimes I have gone a whole day without food and a whole night without sleep, giving myself to thought. It was no use. It is better to learn. Confucianist Who Said It? Confucianist or Daoist or Legalist? When it comes to uncles, brothers, and
chief vassals, he should punish them when their advice leads to failure, and promote them when their advice leads to success. He should not promote them erratically. Legalist Who Said It? Confucianist or Daoist or Legalist? Let the sole worry of your parents be that
you might become ill. Confucianist Who Said It? Confucianist or Daoist or Legalist? Do not worry about NOT holding high positions; worry rather about playing your proper role. Confucianist
Who Said It? Confucianist or Daoist or Legalist? If the Way prevails on earth, horses will be used for purposes of agriculture. If the Way does not prevail, war-horses will be bred. Daoist
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