Chest Pain… Is it ever Cardiac - Children's National ...
Chest Pain in Children Is it ever Cardiac? P. Jamil Madati, MD Outline: Goals Definitions
Epidemiology Differential Diagnoses EBM review Methodical approach to evaluation & work up Summary Goals: Review differential diagnosis for pediatric chest pain Recognize the red flags warnings that could suggest underlying cardiac disease Review an evidence based, methodical, cost and time effective work up for children
presenting with chest Definition: For the purpose of this talk Age < 19yo Presenting Chief Complaint of chest pain Otherwise healthy patient with no underlying medical condition that would predispose patient to getting cardiac related chest pain Prior cardiac history (Congenital heart disease, known arrhythmias etc) Medically complex patients (Cerebral Palsy, Developmental delay/Non verbal kids)
Epidemiology: National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey Data (NHAMCS) 2010 Chest pain is the 2nd most common visit to the ED (all comers) BUT not a common complaint for pediatric patients Not in top 10 chief complaint for children < 15yo presenting to ED Not in top 10 discharge diagnosis for children < 15yo Differential Diagnosis: Musculoskeletal/Skin
Other Malignancy (chest mass) Rheumatologic diseases (SLE, KD) Tox/Illicit drugs EBM: Cardiac Causes of Chest Pain Pediatric patients with chest pain ~1-5% will have cardiac etiology Not common but could be fatal if not diagnosed promptly
AHA, ACEP, Friedman et al, Drossner et al Evaluation: Detailed history and physical Family history of cardiac events Drug/Illicit substance use history Testing is rarely indicated unless you encounter red flags Methodical Work Up:
Detailed history that includes Location of pain, severity, exacerbating or alleviating factors, associated symptoms and radiation of pain PMHx of conditions that may pre-dispose patient to cardiac etiology of chest pain Fam Hx of early cardiac disease or deaths in family. Also of thrombotic diseases. Illicit drug use, medications the patient is currently taking History Red Flags: Chest pain on exertion, dyspnea on exertion or exertional syncope
Radiating chest pain to back, jaw, left arm or left shoulder Increased with supine position Chest pain associated with fever PMHx/FamHx Red Flags: PMHx: Hx of systemic inflammatory disease e.g rheumatologic/vasculitis Hypercoaguable state (OCPs, clotting disorders), prolonged immobilization History of malignancy FamHx
1st degree relative with Sudden or unexplained death, aborted sudden death Cardiomyopathy Hypercoaguable state Methodical Work Up: Detailed PE that includes Vital signs: HR, RR, BP and O2 Sats Heart exam that assesses for murmur, dynamic precordium, heart sounds, JVD, distal pulses etc Lung exam assessing for crackles, diminished breath sounds Chest wall exam assessing for reproducibility of chest pain
Abdominal exam assessing for hepatosplenomegaly Extremity exam assessing for edema Physical Exam Red Flags: Grossly abnormal vital signs Cardiac: Pathologic murmur, gallop, pericardial rub Diminished femoral pulses Persistent/unexplained tachycardia Presence of HSM, JVD or peripheral edema Pulmonary: Focal/absent lung sounds, crackles
Extremities: Peripheral edema Testing: Further testing rarely indicated particularly if the chest pain is reproducible. Give ibuprofen and re-assess EKG: Will pick up most of the life threatening cardiac etiologies of chest pain CXR: To evaluate for lung pathology and heart size as needed Cardiac Enzymes: TnI, CKMB (BNP) Only obtain if EKG suggests heart strain or
ischemia or at the suggestion of cardiology ECHO: With cardiology consultation And so Chest pain in children Is it ever cardiac? Cardiac disease in pediatric patients presenting to a pediatric ED with chest pain Jan 2005 through Nov 2008, Retrospective chart review, ED in Atlanta
Age <19yrs with Chief Complaint of Chest Pain Excluded patients with known prior cardiac disease N=4,288, 4264 (99.4%) had non-cardiac chest pain 24 (0.6%) had cardiac related chest pain Drossner, DM et al Cardiac disease in pediatric patients presenting to a pediatric ED with chest pain. AJEM 2011(29), 632-8 Non-Cardiac Chest Pain 4,264 out of 4,288 patients (99.6%) Musculoskeletal (56%)
Wheezing/Asthma/Cough (12%) Infectious (URI/Pneumonia/Pharyngitis) (8%) GI (esophagitis/gastritis/abd pain (6%) Sickle Cell/VOC (4%) Other (14%) Drossner, DM et al Cardiac disease in pediatric patients presenting to a pediatric ED with chest pain. AJEM 2011(29), 632-8 Cardiac related Chest Pain NO 24 out of 4,288 patients (0.6%)
DE Pericarditis (6), Age 11-18yo AT Myocarditis (4), Age 12-17yo H Myocardial infarction (3), Age 15-17yo SVT (7), Age 2-15yo Long QTc (1), Age 4yo Ventricular Tachycardia (1), Age 5yo Pulmonary Embolism (1), Age 12yo Pneumopericardium (1), Age 12yo Drossner, DM et al Cardiac disease in pediatric patients presenting to a pediatric ED with chest pain. AJEM 2011(29), 632-8
S Summary: Chest pain is not a common presenting chief complaint or final diagnosis for pediatric patients presenting to the ED A good history (including FamHx) and physical looking out for any red flags that could suggest a cardiac etiology is usually sufficient Cardiac etiology of pediatric chest pain is rare (~ 1-5%) Further testing is rarely indicated unless red
flags on history or physical are present ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
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