Chemistry of Food Fresh baked bread Would you like some butter on it? Or margarine? Or Benecol? Or Smart Balance? Lipids Organic substance
found in living systems that is not soluble in water Fats & oils 95% of lipids in diet are these Steroids Extremely important in cell function, hormones Waxes
Fats solids Oils liquids Lipids and Health Diets that are high in saturated fats are associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease
Saturated fats Found in animal derived fats Usually solids Butter is a saturated fat, also high in cholesterol cis Unsaturated fats
Naturally occurring unsaturated fat Found in plant derived fats About 30% of our daily calories should be from fat Trans unsaturated fats
Formed from hydrogenation of unsaturated fats This is done to make the fat more solid, ex. Peanut butter TFA associated with increased heart disease Margarines Margarines do not have cholesterol, they are made from plant derived
fatty acids, originally unsaturated To give them solid consistency, they are hydrogenated, resulting in trans fatty acids (TFA) Cant believe has 1g of TFA per 10 g total fat in 1T serving Blue bonnet has 2 g of TFA per 7 g total fat in 1 T serving Health Spreads These spreads are made from unsaturated vegetable oils, no cholesterol, lower saturation
Also do not have trans fatty acids Better for you? Fake fats Olestra (Proctor & Gamble) Replaced glycerol with sucrose, 6 to 8 fatty acids No calories, not digested Removes oil soluble
vitamins & cartenoids Severe gastrointestinal problems Carbohydrates Good or Bad? Carbohydrates Carbohydrates: Hydrates of carbon Have general formula: Cx(H2O)y in which x and
y are whole numbers Carbohydrates consist of: Monosacchadrides Disaccharides Starch
Cellulose Carbohydrates in Diet Typically half the calories in the human diet are made up of carbohydrates The Atkins diet limits the amount of carbohydrates in
your diet Monosaccharides What is the difference between these sugars? They are isomers of one another. Isomer: Same formula but different arrangement
of the connectivity/ geometry of the molecule. Disaccharides These are 2 simple sugars combined together (with elimination of 1 H2O) General formula: C12H22O11
Average daily Western consumption of simple sugars is 170g Density Demonstration Density = Mass/ Volume
The density of water is 1g/mL Why do the two kinds of pop behave differently? Different densities Majority of both pops is composed of water but the added sugar in the sweetened pop increases the density and causes it to sink Carbohydrates & Health Simple sugars are
responsible for dental cavities Simple sugars contribute to obesity Simple sugars are thought to be important in the development of Type II Diabetes Artificial Sweeteners
Relative Sweetness of Different Common Sweeteners 300 300 180 200 100
1 0 sugar aspartame saccharin Saccharin: Not
digested, no caloric value, bitter aftertaste, possible carcinogen, not used as much Aspartame (NutraSweet): Does have caloric value but more sweetness per gram than sucrose
Aspartame Decomposes10% per month at room temperature How is rate affected by temperature? Increased Temp. Increased Rate Cooking rapidly decomposes NutraSweet Polysaccharides
Consist of many sugars bonded together Polymer: A large molecule with a repeating unit Common polysaccharides include: cellulose, glycogen, and starch
Biomolecules Geometry Chirality Chirality = Handedness Molecules that cannot be superimposed on their mirror images are called chiral. Molecules that can be superimposed on their
mirror images are achiral Chirality Which of the following objects is chiral? A table knife, a pencil, a pair of gloves, a shirt that has buttons, a TV set A table knife, a pencil, a pair of gloves, a shirt that has buttons, a TV set
Chirality Enantiomers: Chiral pair of molecules, have same exact formula but are different molecules Racemic: Equal portions of both enantiomers Examples: Aleve, thaliomide, ibuprofin
What is Reading Counts? Many middle school students are already familiar with the Reading Counts program from elementary school. Students read books of their choice that fall under the Reading Counts program. They take a 10 question quiz when they...
Enriched Dough. Has fat, dairy, eggs or sugar added. Usually softer, and have a more tender bite after baking than lean dough products. They may be golden in color because of the use of eggs and butter, and the crust...
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C1.3 Algebra and functions 3 ... When solving quadratics algebraically, however, it is usually more desirable to leave the roots as surds. Explain that, in a polynomial, x can only by raised to the power of a positive whole number....