Chemistry - Henry County School District

Chemistry - Henry County School District

Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 Chemistry Introduction to Chemistry Chapter 1 Chemistry Section 1.1

Chemistry 1.1 Chemistry the study of matter and the changes that matter undergoes Matter anything that has mass and takes up space (stuff) Chemistry 1.1 5 Branches

1. Organic chemicals that contain carbon 2. Inorganic chemicals that do not contain carbon 3. Biochemistry processes in organisms 4. Analytical the composition of matter 5. Physical mechanism, rate, and energy of reactions Chemistry 1.1

Pure Chemistry for knowledge sake Applied Chemistry for a goal or application Thinking Like a Scientist Section 1.3 Standard SCSH8 Students will understand important features

of the process of scientific inquiry. Thinking Like A Scientist 1.3 Understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry. The Scientific Method 1. Observation use your senses to obtain information 2. Hypothesis proposed explanation

(testable) 3. Experiment test a hypothesis a. Independent variable (manipulated) the variable you change b. Dependent variable (responding) observed during the experiment Example Example

Thinking Like A Scientist 1.3 Understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry. c. Control independent variable is not manipulated Starter S-2 Define the terms 1. Hypothesis

2. Chemistry 3. Matter Thinking Like A Scientist 1.3 Understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry. Theory well tested explanation, broad set of observations Scientific Law generalizes a body of

observation, laws explain, but do not describe, no exceptions to laws Thinking Like A Scientist 1.3 Understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry. Development of a Simple Theory by the Scientific Method: Observation: Every swan I've ever seen is white.

Hypothesis: All swans must be white. Test: A random sampling of swans from each continent where swans are indigenous produces only white swans. Publication: "My global research has indicated that swans are always white, wherever they are observed." Verification: Every swan any other scientist has ever observed in any country has always been white. Theory: All swans are white.

Prediction: The next swan I see will be white. Thinking Like A Scientist 1.3 Understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry. Note, however, that although the prediction is useful, the theory does not absolutely prove that the next swan I see will be white.

Thus it is said to be falsifiable. If anyone ever saw a black swan, the theory would have to be tweaked or thrown out. (And yes, there are really black swans. This example was just to illustrate the point.) Matter and Change

Chapter 2 Properties of Matter Section 2.1 Standard SC1 Students will analyze the nature of matter and its classifications.

Properties of Matter 2.1 Analyze the nature of matter and its classifications. Extensive Properties depends on the amount of matter in a sample *mass measure of the amount of matter Intensive Properties depends on the type of matter, not the amount

Properties of Matter 2.1 Analyze the nature of matter and its classifications. Physical Property quality or condition that can be observed without changing the substance Visual Periodic

Table State Color Melting Point Boiling Point Malleability Properties of Matter 2.1

Analyze the nature of matter and its classifications. States of Matter Solid definite shape and volume particles locked in position, vibrate in place Liquid takes shape of container, definite volume particles close, but position not locked

Gas takes shape and volume of container particles free to move States States of of Matter Matter Starter S-3 Which of the following are Physical Properties?

Name: Manganese Symbol: Mn Atomic Number: 25 Atomic Mass: 54.93805 amu Melting Point: 1245.0 C (1518.15 K, 2273.0 F) Boiling Point: 1962.0 C (2235.15 K, 3563.6 F) Number of Protons/Electrons: 25 Number of Neutrons: 30 Crystal Structure: Cubic

Density @ 293 K: 7.43 g/cm3 Color: silverish/grayish Properties of Matter 2.1 Analyze the nature of matter and its classifications. Physical Change some properties change, but composition does not change Phases of Matter

In our example the molecule, H2O, always stayed the same. Mixtures Section 2.2 Mixtures 2.2 Analyze the nature of matter and its classifications.

Mixture physical blend of two or more compounds Some are are hard easyto tosee see Some

Mixtures 2.2 Analyze the nature of matter and its classifications. Homogeneous Mixture uniform throughout Solution homogeneous mixture Dissolving Dissolving

Starter S-4 Write down 10 observations about the object in the front of the room. List 3 physical changes that could be done to the object. Mixtures 2.2 Analyze the nature of matter and its classifications.

Mixtures can be separated without chemical reactions based on the physical properties of the mixture Magnets remove magnetic material Chromatography separation of substances of different colors Chromatography Chromatography

Filtration separation of insoluble substance from a liquid Evaporation soluble solid from a liquid Distillation liquid from a solution Distillation Distillation Elements and Compounds Section 2.3

Elements and Compounds 2.3 Analyze the nature of matter and its classifications. Substance matter that is uniform and definite composition Element simplest form of matter that has unique set of properties Periodic

Periodic Table Table Compound two or more elements chemically combined Elements and Compounds 2.3 Analyze the nature of matter and its classifications. Physical

changes will not break down Color Change compounds Energy Change Absorbed or Released Chemical Change produces matter with a different matter with a different composition

Signs Odor Change Elements and Compounds 2.3 Analyze the nature of matter and its classifications. Formation of Solids - Precipitate

Not Easily Reversed Starter S-5 Choose if the following are physical or chemical changes. How do you know? Elements and Compounds 2.3 Analyze the nature of matter and its classifications.

NaCl sodium chloride, table salt Na - Sodium Compounds have very different

properties than the elements they are made of. Sodium Sodium Video Video Elements and Compounds 2.3 Analyze the nature of matter and its classifications.

Cl - Chlorine Chlorine Chlorine & & Sodium Sodium Reaction Reaction Elements and Compounds 2.3 Flow Chart of Matter

Chemical Reactions Section 2.4 Chemical Reactions 2.4 Words like the following usually mean a chemical change has take place Burn Rot

Rust Decompose Ferment Explode Corrode Chemical Reactions 2.4 Chemical Property the ability to undergo a specific chemical change

Composition of matter changes Reactants substances before reaction Products substances after reaction Reaction Reaction Starter S-6 Determine if the following are matter, mixtures, substances, homogeneous,

heterogenous, elements, compounds (choose 3 for each) Copper Baking Soda Pizza 2% Hydrogen Peroxide

Chemical Reactions 2.4 Analyze the nature of matter and its classifications. The Law of conservation of mass mass is neither created or destroyed in a chemical reaction It can be created or destroyed in nuclear reactions

Bomb Bomb Starter S-9 Classify the following. Starter S-10 Test

Yipee! Yahoo! Yah!

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