Chemistry 13.1

Chemistry 13.1

The Nature of Gases > Gases Behavior and Gas laws - Chapter 13 (in part) and 14 of TextBook What I already know? Three common states of matter and their characteristics Behavior of gases and Gas Laws Resources (ch 14 TB, and ch 13 in part; WB p 204-208; 31-35; 7) POGIL activities: (1) Kinetic Molecular Theory PHET animations gases Lab Gas Laws Lab#4 Practice problems for conversions involving pressure units and conversions for temperature between Celcius and kelvin scales (Using information from regents reference tables) Slide 1 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

End Show 13.1 The Nature of Gases > Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases The word kinetic refers to motion. The energy an object has because of its motion is called kinetic energy. According to the kinetic theory, all matter consists of tiny particles that are in constant motion.

What are the three assumptions of the kinetic theory (kinetic molecular theory) as it applies to gases? Slide 2 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.1 The Nature of Gases >

Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases According to kinetic theory: The particles in a gas are considered to be small, hard spheres with an insignificant volume. The motion of the particles in a gas is rapid, constant, and random. All collisions between particles in a gas are perfectly elastic.

Slide 3 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.1 The Nature of Gases > Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases Particles in a gas are in rapid, constant

motion. Gas particles travel in straightline paths. Slide 4 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.1 The Nature of Gases >

Gas Pressure Gas Pressure How does kinetic theory explain gas pressure? Slide 5 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.1 The Nature of Gases

> Gas Pressure Gas pressure results from the force exerted by a gas per unit surface area of an object. An empty space with no particles and no pressure is called a vacuum. Atmospheric pressure results from the collisions of atoms and molecules in air with objects. Slide

6 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.1 The Nature of Gases > Gas Pressure Gas pressure is the result of simultaneous collisions of billions of rapidly moving particles in a gas with

an object. Slide 7 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.1 The Nature of Gases > Gas Pressure

A barometer is a device that is used to measure atmospheric pressure. Slide 8 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.1 The Nature of Gases > Gas Pressure

The SI unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa). One standard atmosphere (atm) is the pressure required to support 760 mm of mercury in a mercury barometer at 25C. Slide 9 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show SAMPLE PROBLEM 13.1 Slide 10 of 29

Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show SAMPLE PROBLEM 13.1 Slide 11 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Practice Problems for Sample Problem 13.1 Slide 12 of 29

Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.1 The Nature of Gases > Kinetic Energy and Temperature What is the relationship between the temperature in kelvins and the average kinetic energy of particles? The Kelvin temperature of a substance is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles of the substance.

Slide 13 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.1 The Nature of Gases > Kinetic Energy and Temperature Average Kinetic Energy

The particles in any collection of atoms or molecules at a given temperature have a wide range of kinetic energies. Most of the particles have kinetic energies somewhere in the middle of this range. Slide 14 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.1 The Nature of Gases >

Kinetic Energy and Temperature Absolute zero (0 K, or 273.15C) is the temperature at which the motion of particles theoretically ceases. Particles would have In this vacuum chamber, scientists cooled sodium vapor to nearly absolute zero.

no kinetic energy at absolute zero. Absolute zero has never been produced in the laboratory. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 15 of 29 End Show 13.1 Section Quiz. Assess students understanding of

the concepts in Section 13.1. Continue to: -or- Launch: Section Quiz Slide 16 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.1 Section Quiz.

1. According to the kinetic theory, the particles in a gas a. are attracted to each other. b. are in constant random motion. c. have the same kinetic energy. d. have a significant volume. Slide 17 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.1 Section Quiz. 2. The pressure a gas exerts on another object is caused by

a. the physical size of the gas particles. b. collisions between gas particles and the object. c. collisions between gas particles. d. the chemical composition of the gas. Slide 18 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.1 Section Quiz. 3. The average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance is directly proportional to the a. Fahrenheit temperature. b. Kelvin temperature.

c. molar mass of the substance. d. Celsius temperature. Slide 19 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.2 The Nature of Liquids Hot lava oozes and flows, scorching everything in its path, and occasionally overrunning nearby houses. When the lava cools, it

solidifies into rock. The properties of liquids are related to intermolecular interactions. You will learn about some of the properties of liquids. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 20 of 29 End Show A Model for Liquids What factors determine the physical properties of a liquid?

a. Substances that can flow are referred to as fluids. Both liquids and gases are fluids. Slide 21 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Evaporation The conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor is called vaporization. When such a conversion occurs at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling, the process is called evaporation. During evaporation, only those molecules with a

certain minimum kinetic energy can escape from the surface of the liquid. Slide 22 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Evaporation In an open container, molecules that evaporate can escape from the container. In a closed container, the molecules cannot escape. They

collect as a vapor above the liquid. Some molecules condense back into a liquid. Slide 23 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Vapor Pressure Vapor Pressure When can a dynamic equilibrium exist between a liquid and its vapor? Slide

24 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.2 Vapor Pressure a. Vapor pressure is a measure of the force exerted by a gas above a liquid. Slide 25 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

End Show Vapor Pressure In a system at constant vapor pressure, a dynamic equilibrium exists between the vapor and the liquid. The system is in equilibrium because the rate of evaporation of liquid equals the rate of condensation of vapor. Slide 26 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Vapor Pressure

Vapor Pressure and Temperature Change An increase in the temperature of a contained liquid increases the vapor pressure. The particles in the warmed liquid have increased kinetic energy. As a result, more of the particles will have the minimum kinetic energy necessary to escape the surface of the liquid. Slide 27 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Vapor Pressure

Slide 28 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Vapor Pressure Vapor Pressure Measurements The vapor pressure of a liquid can be determined with a device called a manometer. Slide 29 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

End Show Boiling Point Boiling Point Under what conditions does boiling occur? Slide 30 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Boiling Point: Under what conditions does boiling occur? When a liquid is heated to a temperature at which particles throughout the liquid have enough kinetic energy to vaporize, the liquid begins to boil.

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is just equal to the external pressure on the liquid is the boiling point (bp). Because a liquid boils when its vapor pressure is equal to the external pressure, liquids dont always boil at the same temperature. Because a liquid can have various boiling points depending on pressure, the normal boiling point is defined as the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 101.3 kPa. Slide 31 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Boiling Point

a. Altitude and Boiling Point Slide 32 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Boiling Point See regents reference tables & POGIL on vapor pressure; see animation relating intermolecular forces to boiling point and vapor pressure Slide

33 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.2 Section Quiz 1. In liquids, the attractive forces are a. very weak compared with the kinetic energies of the particles. b. strong enough to keep the particles confined to fixed locations in the liquid. c. strong enough to keep the particles from evaporating. d. strong enough to keep particles relatively close together. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Slide 34 of 29 End Show 13.2 Section Quiz 2. Which one of the following is a process that absorbs energy? a. freezing b. condensation c. evaporation d. solidifying Slide 35 of 29

Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 13.2 Section Quiz 3. In a sealed gas-liquid system at constant temperature eventually a. there will be no more evaporation. b. the rate of condensation decreases to zero. c. the rate of condensation exceeds the rate of evaporation. d. the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Slide 36 of 29 End Show 13.2 Section Quiz 4. Where must particles have enough kinetic energy to vaporize for boiling to occur? a. at the surface of the liquid b. at the bottom of the container c. along the sides of the container d. throughout the liquid Slide 37 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

End Show 13.2 Section Quiz 5. The boiling point of a liquid a. increases at higher altitudes. b. decreases at higher altitudes. c. is the same at all altitudes. d. decreases as the pressure increases. Slide 38 of 29 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show

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