Chapter Title - Microbiology

Chapter Title - Microbiology

PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Bradley W. Christian, McLennan Community College CHAPTER 11 The

Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 11.1 Classification of Selected Prokaryotes* 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Gram-Negative Bacteria Learning Objectives 11-1 Differentiate the alphaproteobacteria described in this chapter by drawing a dichotomous key. 11-2 Differentiate the betaproteobacteria described in this chapter by drawing a dichotomous key. 11-3 Differentiate the gammaproteobacteria described in this chapter by drawing a dichotomous key. 11-4 Differentiate the deltaproteobacteria described in this chapter by drawing a dichotomous key.

11-5 Differentiate the epsilonproteobacteria described in this chapter by drawing a dichotomous key. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Proteobacteria From the mythological Greek god Proteus, who could assume many shapes Gram-negative Chemoheterotrophic Largest taxonomic group of bacteria

Five classes 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Alphaproteobacteria Most are capable of growing with very low levels of nutrients Many have stalks or buds known as prosthecae 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Alphaproteobacteria Pelagibacter One of the most abundant microorganisms in oceans Extremely small Advantage in low-nutrient environments Important role in Earth's carbon cycle

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Alphaproteobacteria Azospirillum Grows in soil, using nutrients excreted by plants Forms associations with roots Fixes nitrogen Acetobacter and Gluconobacter Convert ethanol into acetic acid

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Alphaproteobacteria Rickettsia Obligate intracellular parasites Cause spotted fevers R. prowazekii: epidemic typhus R. typhi: endemic murine typhus R. rickettsii: Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Transmitted by insect and tick bites Ehrlichia Transmitted by ticks Cause ehrlichiosis 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.1 Rickettsias. Slime

layer Scattered rickettsias Chicken embryo cell Nucleus Masses of

rickettsias in nucleus A rickettsial cell that has just been released from a host cell 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Rickettsias grow only within a host cell,

such as the chicken embryo cell shown here. Note the scattered rickettsias within the cell and the compact masses of rickettsias in the cell nucleus. The Alphaproteobacteria Caulobacter and Hyphomicrobium

Found in low-nutrient aquatic environments Form stalks and prosthecae Reproduce via budding rather than binary fission 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.2 Caulobacter. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.3 Hyphomicrobium, a type of budding bacterium.

Hypha Holes in filter Bud Bud 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Alphaproteobacteria Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium Fix nitrogen in the roots of leguminous plants Known by the common name of rhizobia Agrobacterium Plant pathogen; causes crown gall Inserts a plasmid into plant cells, inducing a tumor 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 9.19 Crown gall disease on a rose plant. Crown gall 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Alphaproteobacteria Bartonella Human pathogen B. henselae: cat-scratch disease

Brucella Obligate parasite of mammals; survives phagocytosis Causes brucellosis 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Alphaproteobacteria Nitrobacter and Nitrosomonas Chemoautotrophic; use inorganic chemicals as energy source; CO2 as carbon source

Nitrosomonas: NH4+ NO2 Nitrobacter: NO2 NO3 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Alphaproteobacteria Wolbachia Endosymbiont of insects Affects reproduction of insects 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Applications of Microbiology 11.1a 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Applications of Microbiology 11.1b Males Females Neither infected

Uninfected offspring Male infected No offspring Female infected Infected offspring Both infected Infected offspring Wolbachia

Unfertilized female infected Infected female offspring 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding Make a dichotomous key to distinguish the alphaproteobacteria described in this chapter. (Hint: See page 292 for a completed example. 11-1 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Betaproteobacteria Acidithiobacillus Chemoautotrophic; oxidize sulfur to sulfates: H2S SO42 Spirillum Found in freshwater Move via flagella Sphaerotilus

Found in freshwater and sewage Form sheaths to aid in protection and nutrient gathering 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.4 Spirillum volutans. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.5 Sphaerotilus natans.

Bacterial cells Sheath 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Betaproteobacteria Burkholderia B. cepacia: degrades more than 100 organic molecules B. pseudomallei: causes meliodosis

Bordetella Non-motile rods B. pertussis: causes whooping cough 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Betaproteobacteria Neisseria N. gonorrhoeae: cause of gonorrhoea N. meningitidis: cause of meningococcal meningitis

Zoogloea Important in the activity of the activated sludge system 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.6 The gram-negative coccus Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Bacteria Host-cell membrane

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding Make a dichotomous key to distinguish the betaproteobacteria described in this chapter. 11-2 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Gammaproteobacteria Thiotrichales

Beggiatoa Grows in aquatic sediments Chemoautotrophic; oxidize H2S to S0 for energy Francisella F. tularensis: causes tularemia 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Gammaproteobacteria Pseudomonadales

Pseudomonas Opportunistic pathogens; nosocomial infections Metabolically diverse Polar flagella; common in soil P. aeruginosa: wound and urinary tract infections

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.7 Pseudomonas. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Gammaproteobacteria Pseudomonadales (cont'd) Azotobacter and Azomonas Nitrogen-fixing

Moraxella M. lacunata: causes conjunctivitis Acinetobacter A. baumanii: respiratory pathogen; resistant to antibiotics 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Gammaproteobacteria Legionellales Legionella

Found in streams, warm-water pipes, and cooling towers Causes legionellosis Coxiella C. burnetii: causes Q fever; transmitted via aerosols or milk 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 24.13b Coxiella burnetii, the cause of Q fever.

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Gammaproteobacteria Vibrionales Found in aquatic habitats V. cholerae causes cholera V. parahaemolyticus causes gastroenteritis 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.8 Vibrio cholerae.

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Gammaproteobacteria Enterobacteriales Commonly called enterics inhabit the intestinal tract; ferment carbohydrates Facultative anaerobes Peritrichous flagella 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Gammaproteobacteria Enterobacteriales (cont'd) Escherichia E. coli: indicator of fecal contamination; causes foodborne disease and urinary tract infections Salmonella 2400 serovars Common form of foodborne illness Salmonella typhi causes typhoid fever

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Gammaproteobacteria Enterobacteriales (cont'd) Shigella Causes bacillary dysentery Klebsiella K. pneumoniae causes pneumonia

Serratia Produces red pigment Common cause of nosocomial infections 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Gammaproteobacteria Enterobacteriales (cont'd) Proteus Swarming motility; colonies form concentric rings

Yersinia Y. pestis causes plague Transmitted via fleas Erwinia Plant pathogens 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.9 Proteus mirabilis.

Flagella Proteus mirabilis with peritrichous flagella 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. A swarming colony of Proteus mirabilis, showing concentric rings of growth

The Gammaproteobacteria Enterobacteriales (cont'd) Enterobacter E. cloacae and E. aerogenes cause urinary tract infections and nosocomial infections Cronobacter Discovered in 2007 C. sakazakii causes meningitis; found in a variety of environments and foods

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Gammaproteobacteria Pasteurellales Pasteurella Pathogen of domestic animals P. multocida is transmitted to humans via animal bites Haemophilus Require X factor (heme) and V factor (NAD+, NADP+) in media

H. influenzae causes meningitis, earaches, and epiglottitis 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding Make a dichotomous key to distinguish the orders of gammaproteobacteria described in this chapter. 11-3 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Deltaproteobacteria Bdellovibrio Attacks other gram-negative bacteria Desulfovibrionales Use S0 or SO42 instead of O2 as final electron acceptors Desulfovibrio is found in anaerobic sediments and intestinal tracts 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 11.10 Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Deltaproteobacteria Myxococcales Myxo = mucus Move by gliding and leave a slime trail Cells aggregate and form a fruiting body containing myxospores

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.11 Myxococcales. Myxobacteria fruiting body Myxospores Myxospores are resistant resting cells released from sporangioles upon favorable conditions. Sporangiole

Mounds of myxobacteria differentiate into a mature fruiting body, which produces myxospores packed within sporangioles. Mounding Aggregations of cells heap up into a mound, an early fruiting body.

Myxospores Germination Myxospores germinate and form gram-negative vegetative cells, which divide to reproduce. Vegetative growth cycle Vegetative myxobacteria are motile by gliding,

forming visible slime trails. Aggregation Under favorable conditions, the vegetative cells swarm to central locations, forming an aggregation. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding Make a dichotomous key to distinguish the deltaproteobacteria described in this chapter.

11-4 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Epsilonproteobacteria Helical or curved; microaerophilic Campylobacter One polar flagellum C. jejuni causes foodborne intestinal disease Helicobacter

Multiple flagella Cause peptic ulcers and stomach cancer 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.12 Helicobacter pylori. Flagella 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Check Your Understanding Make a dichotomous key to distinguish the epsilonproteobacteria described in this chapter. 11-5 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria Learning Objective 11-6 Differentiate planctomycetes, chlamydias, Bacteroidetes, Cytophaga, and Fusobacteria

by drawing a dichotomous key. 11-7 Compare and contrast purple and green photosynthetic bacteria with the cyanobacteria. 11-8 Describe the features of spirochetes and Deinococcus. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Cyanobacteria (The Oxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria) Carry out oxygenic photosynthesis

Many contain heterocysts that can fix nitrogen Gas vesicles that provide buoyancy Unicellular or filamentous 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.13 Cyanobacteria. Heterocysts

Glycocalyx Filamentous cyanobacterium showing heterocysts, in which nitrogen-fixing activity is located 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. A unicellular, nonfilamentous cyanobacterium, Gloeocapsa. Groups of these cells, which divide by binary

fission, are held together by the surrounding glycocalyx. The Phyla Chlorobi and Chloroflexi (The Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria) Carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis Green sulfur: phylum Chlorobi Green nonsulfur: phylum Chloroflexi Purple sulfur and purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria are proteobacteria

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.14 Purple sulfur bacteria. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 11.2 Selected Characteristics of Photosynthesizing Bacteria 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chlamydiae No peptidoglycan in the cell wall; grow intracellularly Chlamydia and Chlamydophila Form an elementary body that is infective Chlamydia trachomatis causes trachoma and urethritis Chlamydophila psittaci causes respiratory psittacosis 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.15a Chlamydias.

Elementary body The elementary bodies are released from the host cell. The bacterium's infectious form, the elementary body, attaches to a host cell.

Nucleus The reticulate bodies begin to convert back to elementary bodies. Host cell The host cell phagocytizes the elementary body, housing it in a vacuole.

Vacuole forming Vacuole Reticulate body The reticulate body divides successively, producing multiple reticulate bodies. Life cycle of the chlamydias, which takes about 48 hours to complete

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The elementary body reorganizes to form a reticulate body. Figure 11.15b Chlamydias. Elementary body Reticulate body

Intermediate body 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Micrograph of Chlamydophila psittaci in the cytoplasm of a host cell. The elementary bodies are the infectious stage; they are dense, dark, and relatively small. Reticulate bodies, the form in which chlamydias reproduce within the host cell, are larger with a speckled appearance. Intermediate bodies, a stage between the two, have a dark center.

Planctomycetes Gemmata obscuriglobus has a membrane around DNA resembling a eukaryotic nucleus 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.16 Gemmata obscuriglobus. Nucleoid

Nuclear envelope 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria Bacteroidetes Anaerobic Bacteroides are found in the mouth and large intestine Cytophaga degrade cellulose in soil

Fusobacteria Anaerobic Are found in the mouth; cause dental abscesses 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.17 Fusobacterium. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Spirochaetes

Coiled and move via axial filaments Treponema T. pallidum causes syphilis Borrelia Causes relapsing fever and Lyme disease Leptospira Excreted in animal urine 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 11.18 Spirochetes. Axial filaments Sheath This cross section of a spirochete shows numerous axial filaments between the dark cell and the outer sheath.

Axial filament anchored at one end to cell body Sheath Body of cell Axial filament The end of an axial filament (endoflagellum) is attached to the cell and extends through most of the length of the cell. Another axial filament is attached to the

opposite end of the cell. These axial filaments do not extend away from the cell but remain between the body of the cell and the external sheath. Their contractions and relaxations cause the helical cell to rotate in a corkscrew fashion. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Deinococci Deinococcus radiodurans More resistant to radiation than endospores Thermus aquaticus Found in a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park

Source of Taq polymerase 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding Which gram-negative group has a life cycle that includes different stages? 11-6 Both the purple and green photosynthetic bacteria and the photosynthetic cyanobacteria use plantlike CO2 fixation to make carbohydrates. In what way

does the photosynthesis carried out by these two groups differ from plant photosynthesis? 11-7 The axial filament distinguishes what genera of bacteria? 11-8 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Gram-Positive Bacteria Learning Objective 11-9 Differentiate the genera of firmicutes

described in this chapter by drawing a dichotomous key. 11-10 Differentiate the actinobacteria described in this chapter by drawing a dichotomous key. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Gram-Positive Bacteria Firmicutes (low G + C ratios) Actinobacteria (high G + C ratios)

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Firmicutes (Low G + C Gram-Positive Bacteria) Clostridiales Clostridium Endospore-producing Obligate anaerobes Includes disease-causing C. tetani, C. botulinum, C. perfringens, and C. difficile Epulopiscium

Can be seen with the unaided eye Daughter cells form within the parent cell; no binary fission 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.19 Clostridium difficile. Endospore 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 11.20 A giant prokaryote, Epulopiscium fishelsoni. Epulopiscium Paramecium 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Firmicutes (Low G + C Gram-Positive Bacteria) Bacillales Bacillus

Endospore-producing rods B. anthracis causes anthrax B. thuringiensis is an insect pathogen B. cereus causes food poisoning Staphylococcus

Grapelike clusters S. aureus causes wound infections, is often antibiotic resistant, and produces an enterotoxin 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.21 Bacillus. Endospore Collapsed B. thuringiensis

Toxic crystal Bacillus thuringiensis. The diamond-shaped crystals shown next to the endospore are toxic to insects that ingest them. This electron micrograph was made using the technique of shadow casting. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.22 Staphylococcus aureus.

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Firmicutes (Low G + C Gram-Positive Bacteria) Lactobacillales Aerotolerant anaerobes; produce lactic acid from simple carbohydrates Lactobacillus colonize the body and are used commercially in food production 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Firmicutes (Low G + C Gram-Positive Bacteria) Lactobacillales (cont'd) Streptococcus Spherical in chains Produce enzymes that destroy tissue Beta-hemolytic streptococci hemolyze blood agar; includes S. pyogenes Non-beta-hemolytic streptococci include S. pneumoniae and S. mutans, which causes dental caries

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.23 Streptococcus. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Firmicutes (Low G + C Gram-Positive Bacteria) Lactobacillales (cont'd) Enterococcus Found in intestinal tract; hospital contaminants E. faecalis and E. faecium infect surgical wounds and the

urinary tract Listeria L. monocytogenes contaminates food 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Firmicutes (Low G + C Gram-Positive Bacteria) Mycoplasmatales Lack a cell wall; pleomorphic M. pneumoniae causes mild pneumonia

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.24 Mycoplasma pneumoniae. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding To which genus is Enterococcus more closely related: Staphylococcus or Lactobacillus? 11-9

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Actinobacteria (High G + C Gram-Positive Bacteria) High G + C Gram-positive 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Actinobacteria (High G + C Gram-Positive

Bacteria) Often pleomorphic; branching filaments Often common inhabitants of soil Mycobacterium Outermost layer of mycolic acids that is waxy and waterresistant Often slow-growing M. tuberculosis causes tuberculosis M. leprae causes leprosy 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Actinobacteria (High G + C Gram-Positive Bacteria) Corynebacterium C. diphtheriae causes diphtheria Propionibacterium Forms propionic acid P. acnes causes acne Gardnerella G. vaginalis causes vaginitis

Frankia Forms N-fixing nodules on tree roots 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Actinobacteria (High G + C Gram-Positive Bacteria) Streptomyces Isolated from soil; produce most antibiotics

Actinomyces Form filaments in the mouth and throat; destroy tissue Nocardia Form fragmenting filaments; acid-fast N. asteroides causes pulmonary infections 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.25 Streptomyces.

Conidiospores in coils Filament Drawing of a typical streptomycete showing filamentous, branching growth with asexual reproductive conidiospores at the filament tips Filament Conidiospores in coils Coils of conidiospores supported by filaments of

the streptomycete 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.26 Actinomyces. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding What group of bacteria makes most of the commercially important antibiotics? 11-10

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity Within the Archaea Learning Objective 11-11 Name a habitat for each group of archaea. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity Within the Archaea Distinct taxonomic grouping; lack peptidoglycan

Extremophiles Halophiles Require salt concentration >25% Thermophiles Require growth temperature >80 C Methanogens Anaerobic and produce methane 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 11.27 Archaea. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding What kind of archaea would populate solar evaporating ponds? 11-11 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Microbial Diversity Learning Objective 11-12 List two factors that contribute to the limits of our knowledge of microbial diversity. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Microbial Diversity Bacteria size range Thiomargarita (diameter of 750 m)

Carsonella ruddii (182 genes) PCR indicates up to 10,000 bacterial species per gram of soil Many bacteria have not been identified Have not been cultured Are a part of complex food chains requiring the products of other bacteria 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 11.28 Thiomargarita namibiensis. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding How can you detect the presence of a bacterium that cannot be cultured? 11-12 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

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