CHAPTER 11 Supporting Notebooks Objectives Learn about special considerations when supporting notebooks that are different from supporting desktop computers Learn how to configure, optimize and troubleshoot slots, ports, and peripheral devices used with notebooks Learn how to replace and upgrade internal components in a notebook and all-in-one

computer Learn how to troubleshoot hardware problems with notebooks Special Considerations When Supporting Notebooks Notebook (laptop): portable computer Varieties: tablet PCs and netbooks Tablet PC has more features than a notebook Netbook is smaller and has less features than notebook Comparing notebooks to desktop computers Use the same technology as desktops

Smaller, portable, and uses less power Replacement parts cost more than desktops Notebooks offer a variety of ports and slots Warranty Concerns Always check to see if notebook is under warranty before servicing Contacting technical support: information needed Notebook model and serial number Purchaser name, phone number, address Service options

On-site Ship to authorized service center Phone assistance or online chat The model and serial number stamped on the bottom of a notebook are used to identify the notebook to service desk personnel. Service Manuals and Other Sources of Information Service manuals save time Enables safe notebook disassembly Locating documentation Service manual Manufacturers physical manual

Manufacturers Web site Support or FAQ pages Third party websites User manual Provides basic maintenance tasks Diagnostic Tools Provided By Manufacturers To determine problem components use diagnostic software provided by manufacturer Sources:

Manufacturers Web site (see page 517 for a list) CDs bundled with the notebook Hard drive or floppy disk Example: PC-Doctor Included with Lenovo, Fujitsu, and HP notebooks Can be purchased separately The OEM Operating System Build Operating system preinstalled at the factory Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) OS Build Customized installation of the OS

Proprietary drivers Customized diagnostic software Use caution when upgrading to new OS The OEM Operating System Build Recovery partition and recovery CDs Hard drive recovery partition can contain OS May be hidden Files protected from access See user manual for access Can also use Disk Management utility in Windows

Recovery CDs came bundled with older notebooks Provided by manufacturer Drivers and application setup programs Todays laptops provide a way to create recovery media before there is a problem Creating a USB recovery dirve directions at sb-recovery-drive This notebook hard drive has a recovery partition that can be used to recover the system.

The OEM Operating System Build Operating system upgrades Perform only if necessary Tips: Upgrade using OS build from manufacturer Ensure supporting device drivers included Follow OEMs specific instructions Off-the-shelf OS advice: Verify system component compatibility Ensure device drivers available Flash BIOS before upgrade, if necessary

Maintaining Notebooks and Notebook Components General guidelines: Do not touch LCD panel with sharp objects Do not pick up or hold by the lid Use OEM recommended battery packs Do not tightly pack in a suitcase use carrying case Do not move while hard drive is being accessed Do not put close to appliances generating strong magnetic field Do not connect to the Internet using a public network without setting the network location to Public Maintaining Notebooks and Notebook Components

General guidelines: (contd.) Use passwords with each Windows user account Keep notebook at room temperature Keep OS current Keep away from smoke, water, dust Do not power up and down unnecessarily Do not run it while it is in the case, resting on pillow or covered by a blanket Protect notebook against ESD Remove CD/DVD before traveling Take precautions if notebook gets wet Maintaining Notebooks and Notebook Components

Cleaning tips: Clean LCD panel with a soft dry scratch free cloth Use compressed air To clean keyboard, track ball, and touch pad To blow out air vents Remove keyboard if keys are sticking and then blow air under keys Use contact cleaner Battery connections Special Keys, Buttons, and Input Devices on a

Notebook Button or switches might be above the keyboard Most of the same settings that these buttons control may also be changed using Windows tools Some settings might be: Volume Screen brightness Dual displays Bluetooth or Wi-Fi Special Keys, Buttons, and Input Devices on a Notebook Common laptop

pointing devices Touch pad Old IBM TrackPoint or point stick Some prefer USB wired or wireless mouse Special Keys, Buttons, and Input Devices on a Notebook Adjust touch pad Mouse Properties box:

Adjust pointer speed, mouse trails, pointer size how the touch pad buttons work other settings for pointing devices Tablet PCs Stylus controlled from the Pen and Input Devices box Accessed from Windows

Control Panel PCMCIA and ExpressCard Slots Most peripheral devices today use a USB port to connect to a notebook Older notebooks offered slots to connect peripherals Personal Computer

Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) Include variations of PC Card, CardBus, ExpressCard PCMCIA and ExpressCard Slots PC Card slot technologies 16-bit ISA bus Three standards pertaining to size and thickness Type 1, Type II, Type III

CardBus Increases bus width to 32 bits Backward compatible with earlier standards ExpressCard matches PCI Express and USB 2.0 Two sizes: ExpressCard/34 and ExpressCard/54 Not backward compatible Hot-pluggable, hot-swappable, and supports autoconfiguration This notebook has one CardBus slot and one ExpressCard slot

Updating Port or Slot Drivers If problems arise with a port or slot: Use Device Manager to see if errors are reported Backups of drivers may be stored on hard drive Download the latest drivers from manufacturers web site If problem is not solved by updating drivers: Use Device Manager to uninstall the port or slot drivers Then use support tools to reinstall the drivers Power and Electrical Devices Notebook power sources

AC adapter or a battery pack Auto-switching AC adapter feature Device automatically switches from 110 V to 220 V AC power Todays batteries use: Lithium Ion Technology Some notebooks use two batteries Second battery is known as a sheet battery Power and Electrical Devices Notebook power needs Inverter changes DC to AC

Car Inverter Power Management Use power management settings to conserve power Power-saving states Sleep mode: also called suspend mode Saves power when computer is not in use Hibernation: work is saved to hard drive and powers system down Older computers allows power settings to be

configured in Windows and in BIOS setup Newer BIOS does not control power settings that might conflict with Windows settings Power Management Using the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) standards, BIOS might refer to 5 S states: S1: hard drive and monitor are turned off, everything else

runs normally S2: processor is also turned off S3: everything is shut down except RAM and enough of the system to respond to a wake-up (sleep mode) S4: hibernation S5: power off state after a normal shutdown Newer states for Windows 7 and 8 Big difference is the combination of sleepe and

hibernation. Port Replicators and Docking Stations Port replicator Easy connection to full-sized monitor, keyboard, AC power adapter, and other devices Docking station Same functions as port replicator Additional slots for adding secondary storage devices and expansion cards Replacing and Upgrading Internal Parts

Topics: Alternatives to consider before taking on complex repair projects How to upgrade memory How to exchange a drive How to perform other complex repair projects Exchanging an LCD panel or motherboard Three Approaches to Dealing with a Broken Internal Device Factors to consider before starting repair project: Warranty

Time the repair will take Alternatives to fixing (upgrading) Return notebook to manufacturer or service center Substitute external component for internal device Replace the internal device Three Approaches to Dealing with a Broken Internal Device Before replacing or upgrading a component: Back up important data if possible Ground yourself against ESD Remove ExpressCards, CDs, DVDs, flash memory cards, or USB devices and then shut down notebook

Disconnect AC adapter Undock (if necessary) and remove the battery Upgrading Memory Memory used in notebooks SO-DIMMs (small outline DIMMs) DDR3 or DDR2 SO-RIMMs (small

outline RIMMs) used by older notebooks Can only use the type of memory the notebook is designed to support Upgrading Memory How to upgrade notebook memory: Upgrade process is similar to desktops Considerations:

Make sure warranty not being voided Search for best buy on a suitable and authorized part General steps: Decide how much memory to upgrade Purchase memory Install it Follow steps outlined in the chapter starting on page 542. Replacing a Hard Drive General guidelines:

See manufacturers documentation for drive sizes and connector types Be aware of voiding manufacturers warranty Shopping: Notebook drive: 2.5 inches wide May use SSD (solid state device) technology Hard drives connector: SATA or PATA (IDE) 44-pin IDE drive may use adapter to interface between proprietary connector and motherboard Replacing a Hard Drive Issues to consider before replacing hard drive:

Old drive crashed Recovery media and notebook drivers CD required Upgrade: must transfer data from old drive to new one Older notebook computers required disassembly Newer notebooks: easy to replace If BIOS setup uses autodetect: System boots up and BIOS recognizes new drive Searches for an operating system If a new drive: boot from Windows recovery CD Disassembling and Reassembling a Notebook

Computer Requires special tools and extra patience Many small screws require smaller tools Work methodically: Keep screws and components organized Place screws in a pillbox (label each compartment) Place screws on soft padded work surface Use white labeling tape Place screws on notebook paper Write where screw belongs Tape screw beside manufacturer documentation

Keep notes to help with reassembly Disassembling and Reassembling a Notebook Computer Disassembly tips: Find the hardware service manual Consider the warranty might still apply Opening the case might void the warranty Take the time necessary, do not force anything Protect against ESD Understand ZIF connectors Pry up plastic covers with dental pick or screwdriver

Plastic screws may be used only once Disassemble components in order Disassembling and Reassembling a Notebook Computer Reassembly tips: Reassemble notebook in reverse order Tighten, but do not over tighten, all screws Before installing the battery or AC adapter verify there are no loose parts inside the notebook Disassembling and Reassembling a Notebook Computer

Replacing the keyboard and touchpad see inforation starting on page 551 in book Replacing optical drives see inforation starting on page 553 in book Replacing expansion cards see inforation starting on page 554 in book Disassembling and Reassembling a Notebook Computer Replacing the processor starts of page 557 in book:

Some things to consider: Use CPU supported by manufacturer and notebook model For many laptops, remove the cover on the bottom to expose the processor fan and heat sink assembly Some laptops may require you to remove the keyboard and keyboard bezel to reach the fan assembly and processor Disassembling and Reassembling a Notebook Computer Replacing the motherboard starts on page 559 in

book Some things to consider Need to fully disassemble the entire notebook Consider alternatives before proceeding General procedure for replacing the motherboard: Remove the keyboard, optical drive, and mini PCIe card Remove the notebook lid and keyboard bezel assembly Lift up the assembly and disconnect two cables connecting it to the motherboard Remove CPU and DVD drive Remove screw that hold motherboard in place

Disassembling and Reassembling a Notebook Computer Replacing the LCD panel starts on page 564 in book: Some considerations: If LCD panel is dim or black: Connect external monitor to video port Toggle between LCD panel, external monitor, and both the panel and monitor If external monitor works: LCD panel assembly likely broken

If LCD display entirely black: replace LCD assembly If LCD display dim: video inverter problem High-end notebooks contain video card May need to replace it too Working Inside An All-In-One Computer All-in-one computer: uses a mix of components sized for a desktop and a notebook

For some components, youll need to buy replacements from the manufacturer because they are most likely proprietary See the service manual for specific directions about replacing parts Troubleshooting Notebooks Use diagnostics software to troubleshoot

problems with notebook ports, slots or other devices Download from manufacturers web site if you dont have it available on the hard drive Next few slides cover some common problems with notebooks and how to solve them Problems Logging Onto Windows Check to make sure NumLock is off Notebooks use this key to toggle between keys interpreted

as letters and numbers Most notebooks have a NumLock indicator light near the keyboard Notebook might have a switch to turn internal wireless adapter on and off Might also use a key combination for that purpose Ensure switch is set to on For intermittent connectivity, ensure laptop is within range of wireless access point Follow directions for your notebook to turn Bluetooth

on Power or Battery Problems If power is not getting to the system or battery indicator light is lit: Verify the AC adapter is plugged into an outlet Check if AC adapters plug is secure outlet Check connections on both sides of AC adapter transformer Check connection at notebook If battery is not charging when AC adapter is

plugged in, problem might be with battery or motherboard No Display If LCD panel shows a black screen but power light is on: Look for an LCD cutoff switch or button on laptop Try to use the video port on the notebook to connect to an external monitor If external monitor does work, problem is with the LCD

panel assembly Will need to replace inverter or LCD panel Flickering, Dim, or Otherwise Poor Video Tips to solve problems with bad video: Verify Windows display settings Adjust the brightness Update the video drivers A flickering screen can be caused by bad video drivers, a low refresh rate, a bad inverter, or loose connections inside the laptop Summary

Notebook computers are designed for travel The notebook manufacturer documentation are useful when disassembling, troubleshooting, and repairing a notebook A notebook uses a customized installation of the Windows OS, customized by the manufacturer A notebook hard drive is likely to contain a recovery partition or notebook may come with recovery CDs PC Cards, CardBus, and ExpressCard slots are a popular way to add peripheral devices to notebooks

Summary Updating drivers for a port of slot can sometimes solve problems A notebook can be powered by a battery pack or AC adapter connected to a power source Windows 7/Vista uses sleep mode and hibernation to conserve power When an internal component needs replacing, consider disabling the component and using an external peripheral device in its place Current notebooks use SO-DIMMs for memory

Summary When upgrading components on a notebook, use components that are the same brand as notebook Use diagnostics software from the notebook manufacturer to troubleshoot Use a multimeter to check the voltage output of an AC adapter Use an external monitor to verify that a video problem is with the LCD panel rather than internal video card or motherboard

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