Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Chapter 7 The Road to Revolution 1763-1775 Cause of the American Revolution 1763 huge Turning Point in relationship (2 Georges: George III & George Greenville both committed to paying debt off) Proclamation line (why GB pass it?)Ponitiac Rebellion & why Colonists so upset? Pitt decides to fund the war through the British Treasury and through loans. This relieves the American colonists from

fronting the bill for the war. (at first.) However, after the war is over, GB must settle its debts ($70m. Debt doubling the national debt to $140m) and pay for a standing army in America. (Est.10,000 troops necessary to keep Colonists safe from Indians & w/ cost of $300,000 a yr.) In order to do this, GB decides to have the colonists bear some of the burden for their own defense. (taxes, taxes, taxes & taxes) (Colonists only paid 1/20th of taxes British paid & never any direct taxes)

_______ __________________ ____________ ____ ______ (Republicanism by its nature is opposed to hierarchical & authoritarian institutions such as aristocracy and monarchy) Where did this idea come from????? Hobbes, Locke & Rousseas Social Contract theory undermined the Devine Right Theory. State of Nature, Contract Govt & Man Evil, good or Blank Slate????

______ ____ ___ ______ _______ _________ ____

This party will be the group that takes control & wants peace at end of American Revolution!!!! Mercantilism & Colonial Grievances All of the colonies except GA were not formally founded by the British. (joint stock or trading co, religious groups or land speculators, Proprietorships) But still GB controlled the colonies w/ Mercantilism = wealth was power and countrys economic power was measured by the amount of

gold & silver & a favorable balance of trade (exporting more than importing) So colonies helped GB by supplying raw materials & a market for their goods GB looked at colonists as tenants expected to furnish tobacco, sugar & lumber while not manufacturing (forced to leave that to GB) & buy imported goods only from GB. To Regulate the Mercantilist System:

Navigation Law of 1650 -1. trade in & out only on GB/colonial ships operated by English/colonial crew. 2. all imports except perishables pass through England 1st. (How reasonable is this 3,000 miles away) 3. specific goods could only be exported to GB (list originally included only tobacco but by the end included most all goods) (Strictly enforced 1st time & violators tried in Royal Courts w/ no Jury) Positive results: new England ship building prospered, Chesapeake tobacco had monopoly in England, English troops protected colonies from attack by French or Spanish (no costs to colonists) Negative Results: colonial manufacturing severely hurt,

Chesapeake farmers received low prices for crops, but high prices for manufactured goods. Review: why low prices on tobacco? Manufacturing was not necessary since primary trading partner was GB resentment grew, defy acts by smuggling goods in & out from the French, Dutch, & others. Enforcement increase, agents were corrupt, remember punished Mass Bay in 1684 by revoking charter for smuggling activity. Currency Shortage & nullification rights

Banks & printing $ was forbidden so all gold & silver controlled by GB. Colonists bought more than they sold leading to $ shortages Resorted to barter or butter, nails & feathers as means of currency. Americans thought there welfare was sacrificed. GB crown reserved right to nullify any colonial legislature & started to pay officials from crown not colonies-why is that a problem to colonists? Also started to try violators in Royal Courts w/ Royal Judges & no Jury (why might Zenger Trial have contributed to this?)

Although veto power was very rarely used it created great resentment among colonists. Show: Boston, Bloody Boston / The Revolution (ipod) 1:00- 1st act to raise revenue to pay off debt /other Acts like Molasses Act but not enforced/ _______ _____________________________________ Stamp Act 1765:

French Indian War 1754-1763 now its 1765 $140 million dept This attempt on a tax on any paper documents (newspapers, legal documents, playing cards) to pay for standing army in colonies This was after the tax on sugar (Sugar Act 1764) was repealed for lack of success & threats to the tax collectors. Sugar was used to make rum & this was going to make it very expensive 1st direct tax on colonists Protests: because passed w/ out consent of colonial legislatures -Social Contract theory House of Burgesses Patrick Henry issues Virginia Resolves

going back to charter & enlightenment ideas - They conceded the right of parliament to legislate over them but not tax them. (no taxation w/ out representation) (Greenville dismissed American protests as absurdities) (virtual representation every member of Parliament represented all GB subjects) v. Actual Rep.(like in House of Burgesses w/ 2 reps for each county) Only their colonial legislatures where they had representation had the right to tax them. (Actual Reps) (Colonists disagreed w/ virtual representation) Both the Sugar & Stamp Act created offenders who were tried in Admiralty courts where juries were not allowed. Trial by Jury & innocent until proven guilty were ancient privileges

to the British people and colonist were no different . Why was a Standing Army in peacetime needed if French were expelled and Pontiac rebellion crushed? Colonists began to believe conspiracy theory: GB wanted to strip them of their liberties. _________________________ __________ __________________________________ Ignored in GB but important in colonies because began to erode sectional suspicions & brought

together leaders from different rival colonies (1st organized resistance to GB policies) (intercolonial disunity remained issue) 4th period starts here British merchants demanded Parliament to repeal Stamp ACT On other hand Brits didnt understand why they paid such high taxes and Colonists only paid 1/3 rd of what they paid because of the Stamp Act but so did American resentment which led to boycotts of British goods (nonimportation

agreements) (GB businesses losing $$$) (Colonists were biggest buyer of GB goods 25%)(50% shipping devoted to American trade) Boycott united colonists for the first time in a common cause. Sometimes violence erupted (taring & feathering tax collectors) Sons of Liberty took the law into their own hands & enforced nonimportation agreements against violators. All stamp agents were forced to resign & there was no one to sell the stamps. boycott & merchant demands in Parliament lead to the repeal of stamp act (1766)

Show: Boston, Bloody Boston / The Revolution (ipod) 9:00-13:32 (Va resolves, Ben Franklin & Boycotts working) show madness of King George 32:30 & 1:05 ________________________________ but ______________________________________________________________________________ _- GB drew its line in the sand!! Stage set for confrontation

Writ of Assistance Blanket searches / Could search private homes for goods instead of warrants Townshend Acts 1767 New prime minister Townsend replaced Greenville After repealing Stamp Act, GB decided on new method of gaining $ from colonies: Indirect tax levied on imports = glass, lead, paint & paper as they came into the colonies from GB. (payed at ports) $ from tax used to pay royal officials in the colonies (previously pd by colonial assemblies)

why is this a big deal???? (3rd stopped here) Part of Townsend Acts was Also 3c. tax on tea (most popular drink -1m people drank) (1 gallon of tea a day equals $1.00 tax a yr) Colonists react bring back boycott of British goods because taxation w/ out representation &continued smuggling efforts especially in Mass Suspended NY legislature when they refused to comply also sent 2 regiments to Boston Boston Massacre 1770 Most troops withdrawn from the Frontier because of costs but fuels

conspiracy theory of their Attempts to erode rights Because Boston most resistant, 4,000 troops stationed there (1 soldier for every 4 citizens) 11yr old killed 10 days before (after mob stormed Governors house) Adding to the tension, redcoats so poorly pd competed for odd jobs with colonists. fight broke out about one of these jobs so that evening mob gathered in front of customs house to taunt guards. Shooting of American colonists by British troops on March 5, 1770. British Army killed five civilian men and injured six others.

Nearly every part of the story is disputed by both sides. Did the colonists have weapons? The British say rocks and other objects were hurled at them. But the British had guns, and they did open fire. (Adams defended them in jury trial & won) Show boston bloody boston 13:32-17:55 (show John Adams Join or Die 7:06-8:51 & 29:25-31:05 40:20-42:21) Also sons of liberty chanted: Behold the murdered husbands gasping on the ground take heed ye orphan babes your feet slide on the stones awashed w/ your fathers brains The Boston Massacre deepened American distrust of the British

military presence in the colonies. Standing Army during peace time (PR&EBR) & Quartering troops (PR & EBR) Became a symbol of British Force & tyranny Paul Revere made carving & disseminated it throughout the colonies Committees of Correspondence 1773 These colonists wanted to keep in touch w/ one

another as events unfolded (internet of their day) Sam Adams formed the 1st group & w/ in few months there were 80 such committees in Massachusetts alone. Virginia & others joined the information exchange This was key to allowing information to disseminate in an age of poor communication formed throughout the colonies as a means of coordinating action against Great Britain. (Newspapers, couriers, telegrams, postal service & word of mouth) Many were formed by the legislatures of the respective colonies, others by extra-governmental associations such as the Sons of Liberty in the various colonies. Midnight Ride of Paul Revere (pony express)

Tea tax passed in 1773 Britain had given preferential treatment to the East India Tea Company that would have made GB tea cheaper than American tea because boycott put company near bankruptcy. This the colonists couldnt tolerate because it would have hindered the boycott so mass demostrations in NY & Phily forced ships to return to GB cargo never emptied. Boston Tea Party In Mass Gov Hutchinson ordered ships to be emptied so Angry and frustrated at a new tax on tea, American colonists calling themselves the Sons of Liberty and disguised as Mohawk Indians boarded three British ships (the Dartmouth, the Eleanor, and the Beaver) and dumped 342 whole crates

of British tea into Boston Harbor on December 16, 1773. (1 million pounds lost) Similar incidents occurred in Maryland, New York, and New Jersey in the next few months, and tea was eventually boycotted throughout the colonies. Granting of some home rule might have prevented rebellion but no wise leaders Instead- In retaliation Parliament passed the Coercive / Intolerable Acts: Closed Boston Harbor until the price of the dumped tea was recovered (no way to make a living) (Boston Port Act)(flags at half staff throughout the colonies, sister colonies sent food & supplies)

Withdrew the right of Mass. to govern itself Canceled jury trials & moved trial to Britain (jury & speedy Trial)(violation of Magna Carta & Petition of Right Sent MORE troops to Boston (1 in 4 to 1 in 2) Quartering Act, which allowed royal troops to stay in houses (violation of Petition of Right & English Bill of Rights law officers subject to appointment by the royal governor (all Mass elected leaders removed) (violation of Free Elections =English Bill of Rights) banned all town meetings (right to Petition w/ out reprisal) #26 moved the capital of Massachusetts to Salem

Boston bloody boston 17:55-23:58 to add insult to injury Parliament also passed Take out map _________ ______ ______ _____ ______

____ _____ Colonial Unity: Biggest blunder of GB was Intolerable Acts because it united other colonies (before Intolerable Acts just Boston after Intolerable ACTs all 13) Before mid 1770s Colonists thought of themselves as LOYAL British subjects. lack of transportation &

communication left them isolated & separate from each other The colonies were very separate & not unified (13 Separate Colonies) The First On September 5 to Oct 26 1774 - 75 delegates were sent from 12 colonies Continental (all but GA) to meet in Philadelphia as representatives of The First Congress Continental Congress. (met for 7 weeks)

Result of Intolerable Acts These representatives debated the issues of the rights of colonists as a united group. (other colonists felt sorry for Boston getting punished for a handful of radicals) For first time in history, the 13 colonies were working as a group, and not as individual colonists. (intercolonial frictions melted away by social activity after work hours) Patrick Henry, from Virginia stated I am not a Virginian, I am an American. passed resolutions: that Parliament did not have the right to pass laws in the colonies, and only had the right to regulate trade between the colonies and GB Creation of the Association complete Embargo (nonimportation, nonexportation & nonconsumption) leaders: Washington, Patrick Henry, Sam Adams, Henry Lee (Boston bloody Boston 24:2028:10)

1st Continental Congress Issued: not in notes Declaration of Rights Appeal to other British American Colonies Appeal to the King Appeal to the British people Parliament and the King rejected all of their petitions

Lexington & Concord As tensions rose, officials in Great Britain ordered the governor of Massachusetts to send troops to take possession of the weapons and ammunition (Was this birth of the 2nd amendment?) On April 19, 1775. The British chose to march to Concord because it was a secret arms deposit for Colonist. (about 20 miles outside of Boston) and also arrest ring leaders: Sam Adams & John Hancock. British troops were marching to Concord as they passed through Lexington. Minute men in Lexington tried to slow their advance so that weapons could be removed. WAR BEGAN No one is sure who fired first, but it was the "Shot Heard 'Round the World." The Americans were forced to withdraw. But they had slowed the

British advance. 8 Americans dead (Lexington Massacre than battle) By the time the Redcoats got to Concord, The weapons depot was saved, and the British were forced to retreat, harassed by militiamen all the way back. skirmishes were preceded by Revere's famous ride, warning the countryside: "The British are Coming! (70 Red Coats killed upon return by minute men attacking them guerilla stlye) 28:15-39:45 weaknesses for GB: Opposing party cheered American victories back home. GB operating 3,000 miles from home base. (great delays & uncertainty with storms crossing the Atlantic) Americas Geography was enormous (1,000 by 600 miles)

Americans wisely traded space for time. (captured cities did little to affect the war) _____ ____ _____ _______________ ______ ______________ ____ ____

___ Thin Line of Heroes Basic military supplies esp firearms, manufactured goods, clothes, shoes, & food were scarce. (one reason alliance w/ France was so necessary) American militia highly unreliable (served short terms and went home to farm) & couldnt stand up in open fields to professional Redcoats. German Baron von Stueben finally whipped a few thousand regulars into shape.

African Americans initially barred but by wars end 5,000 served on colonists side & British side (promised freedom) Black Loyalists Morale in Revolution undermined by American profiteers (putting profit above patriotism) made profits of 50 to 200 % selling to British because they would pay in gold Washington never had more than 20,000 troops in one place despite offers of land. Only a select minority believed in the cause of independence. America the Story of Us: Rebels 16:51 Shows Boston Massacre &

Boston Tea Party w/ British reaction of Intolerable Acts, Proclamation Line 29:50 Common Sense by Thomas Paine An pamphlet written by a British corset-maker (anonymously so not to be tried for treason): 500,000

copies sold 1st yr out of pop 2.5 million (20%) government's purpose is to protect life, liberty and property, and that a government should be judged solely on the basis of the extent to which it accomplishes this goal. whos idea? He considers a scenario in which a group of people have been placed on an island, and cut off from the rest of society. In time, these people develop ties with one another, and lawmaking becomes inevitable & lose connection from where they came. (natural) why is it that such a small island nation rules a huge continent anyway? Ludicrous! says the people will be happier if they are responsible for

the creation of the laws that rule them. Distance is a problem because shes so far away w/ communication & transportation issues the British system is too complex and rife with contradictions, monarchy is granted too much power. hereditary succession has brought with it innumerable evils, such as incompetent kings, corruption, and civil war. (we arent British anymore we are Germans, Irish, French & Scandinavians.) (Europe not England is the parent country) Some say that Britain has protected America, and therefore deserves allegiance, but Paine responds that Britain has only watched over America in order to secure its own

economic well-being. (40% of goods sold in colonies) (lumber = oil of the day) (they are interested in only their own self interest.) Commerce can be better conducted with the rest of Europe, but only after America becomes independent. New world is safe haven for the persecuted! They fled not from the tender embrace of a mother but from the cruelty of a monster. The same tyrant that drove her away pursues her descendants still. (what kind of mother is this anyway?) America lacks respectability on the international scene. seen as rebels, In order to prosper, the colonies need to be independent. Washington read it to his troops before battle!

Continental Congress (not in notes) 3 weeks after Lexington & Concord, delegates from all 13 colonies met in Philadelphia & assumed powers like a central govt John Hancock was named President Delegates voted to organize an army & navy and issued $. Made G. Washington commander of the

Continental Army Put men in charge or organizing a Declaration of Independence: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin, Robert Livingston & Roger Sherman They appointed Jefferson, notorious for his writing skills, to write it Bloody bloody boston 39:45- Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence has Seven

parts. They are the 1. Preamble, 2. the Statement of Human Rights, 3. Charges Against Human Rights, 4. Charges Against the King and Parliament, 5. attempts to petition 6. British Brothers 7. the Statement of Separation and Signatures. 56 signers Use your copy to divide the document up into its 7 parts The first State

Constitutions The colonies were now transformed into states subject to no higher authority (the states saw themselves as states like that defined in Ch.1) (VERY CONFEDERATE) 2nd Continental Congress instructed each of the colonies to form constitutions. Most of the state constitutions contained a bill of rights defining the personal liberties of citizens. All states recognized the people as

the sole source of authority in a limited government. w/ independence dont have to obey Proclamation Line!! What happened on their way to Concord? Why was this such a mismatched battle & what was the outcome at Lexington? What happened when the British moved onto Concord? How did Paul Revere again play a significant role in this event? What happened on the 20 mile march back to Boston? What was the written piece of propaganda that had more of a role in getting colonists to join the revolt than any other

document? What was one thing Thomas Paine said in Common Sense that persuaded Colonists to revolt? Why is the 1st Continental Congress meeting different than the Stamp Act Congress that met 9 yrs earlier? What had happened to increase representation in the colonies from 9 in Stamp Act Congress to all 13 in 1st Continental Congress (unified)? Again what rights were violated in the Intolerable Acts passed after the Boston Tea Party? Explain the significance of the Committee of Correspondence in an age of poor communication & transportation? Why was it vital to the rebellions success?

What major things were accomplished at the 1st Continental Congress in 1774? Why did the British dispatch troops to Concord? Why couldnt the colonists keep their weaponry in Boston? Explain the 7 yrs War? Who was fighting whom & why? Why did the British impose taxes on the colonists for the 1 st time after the French & Indian War? What was the Proclamation Line of 1763 & why would the British impose such a limit on the colonists? Why would so many colonists be so opposed to the Proclamation Line of 1763? Explain the Stamp Act: Why were British businesses losing $ while the government struggled to tax the colonies?

What was different about the Townsend Acts taxes that the British thought would get the colonists to succumb to taxation? What was the colonists biggest complaint about the new British taxes? If the British soldiers were acquitted of any wrong doing in a jury trial of New Englanders for the Boston Massacre, why than does the incident become a symbol of British tyranny & that message spreads quickly throughout the colonies? How did the British concoct a plan to get rid of the Colonists boycott & save their beloved East India Tea Company? How did Colonists react to the British plan to save the East India Tea Company? Why was George III so incensed about the incident? What secret organization was responsible for the Boston Tea Party? Explain the rights that George III violated when he passed the intolerable acts & what was his goal?

Show Madness of King George to 3rd & 5th periods Explain the 7 yrs War? Who was fighting whom & why? Why did the victory in the French & Indian War mean the American colonists didnt need the British anymore? Why did the British impose taxes on the colonists for the 1 st time after the French & Indian War? What was the Proclamation Line of 1763 & why would the British impose such a limit on the colonists? Why would so many colonists be so opposed to the Proclamation Line of 1763? What was the positive side of the Proclamation Line of 1763? What did George forget about when he imposed such harsh sanctions on the colonists What personal problems was George III experiencing as the

rebellion w/ the colonists was heating up? What was the first tax placed on the colonists and why was it repealed a yr later? What was the 2nd tax placed on the colonists and why was it repealed a yr later?

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