Chapter 7 - The Hebrews (Ancient Israel)

Chapter 7 - The Hebrews (Ancient Israel)

Chapter 7 - The Hebrews (Ancient Israel) The star of David sacred Jewish symbol Civilizations Location Ancient Era Europe Hebrews c. 2000 BC to c. 70 AD

Egypt c. 3300 BC to c. 150 BC Africa Asia Mesopotam ia c. 3500 BC to 539 BC India

c. 2300 BC to c. 500s AD China c. 2200 BC to c. 220 AD Objectives Identify the landforms that have an impact on Hebrew development and culture. Identify Abraham and Moses and

explain their importance to Hebrew history and religion. Explain why the Hebrews migrated from Mesopotamia to Canaan and from Canaan Landforms Important to Ancient Israel Nile River (Egypt). Egypt was sometimes an Evaporating allywater of Israel and

from later the an enemy. Mediterranean Sea brings rain to Israel Asia Minor had the mountains which provided the melting snow to flood the Jordan. Much of Mesopotamia was

ruled by the Hittites at the time and were enemies of Israel. The Sinai Peninsula was a barrier between Israel and Egypt The Jordan River provided fresh water and silt for Israel.

The Early Hebrews The First Hebrews The first Hebrews were simple herders. They were nomads who were always looking for grazing land. (What group does this remind you of?) Much of the history of the Hebrews was written down by Hebrew scribes. They also wrote down their religious laws. These writings became the Hebrew Bible. The Hebrew Bible is a part of the

The Hebrew religion is called Judaism. The people that believe in this religion are called Jews (also known later as Israelites). The Hebrew Bible traces the Hebrews back to a man named Abraham. He originally lived in Mesopotamia (Ur). According to the Hebrew Bible, God told Abraham to leave his home and go to a land He would show him. God did not tell Abraham where he was being sent, but promised if he was faithful, he would make his descendants

According to Hebrew history, a boy named Joseph was hated by his brothers because he was their fathers favorite. They sold him to Egyptian slave traders to get rid of him. As a slave in Egypt, Joseph became a trusted advisor to the pharaoh because he predicted a great drought can came up with a plan to prepare. Pharaoh made Joseph the second most powerful man in Egypt as a reward. When a famine struck Canaan, Josephs father sent the brothers to Egypt to buy food. Joseph forgave his brothers and told them to bring their

father and their families to live in Egypt. The founder of Judaism _________________ lived in _________________, but was told by God to migrate to _______________. Which set of words accurately fills in the missing blanks above? A. Moses, Egypt, Canaan B. David, Jerusalem, Egypt C. Abraham,

Mesopotamia, Which landform did the Hebrews have to cross as they left Egypt on their way to Canaan (the promised land)? A. Nile River B. Sinai Peninsula C. Mediterranean Sea D. Asia Minor Objectives

Describe the circumstances of the Hebrews gaining their freedom from Egypt. Detail how the religion of Judaism became more organized during the Exodus. List the three kings of the Hebrews and describe their major accomplishments. The Hebrews lived in peace in Egypt for a while. However, when their population began to grow, pharaoh feared they might one day overthrow him. So he

made them slaves. According to the Hebrew Bible, a man named Moses was told by God to lead his people out of Egypt. To convince pharaoh to free the Hebrews, God sent ten plagues on Egypt. After these plagues, the Hebrews were freed. Their journey out of Egypt back to Canaan was called the Exodus. This was During the Exodus, the Hebrew texts say that God gave the Hebrews a code of moral laws known as the Ten

Commandments. These ten commandments began the first laws in the new religion called Judaism. By following the Ten Commandments, the Hebrews agreed to worship only God and live a good, moral life. Moses would add other laws as God gave them. These laws that God gave to moses (including the 10 Commandments) are known as Mosaic Law. These laws covered a lot of different subjects. There were civil laws (laws that

apply to keeping the peace) and religious laws. Many of the laws also listed the punishment for breaking the law (much like Hammurabis Code). The Hebrews lived in the area of Canaan for some time as 12 different tribes. Sometimes a religious leader, often called a judge, would tell them what God wanted, or lead them into battle, but they did not have anything like a king. Hebrew Kings

An invasion forced the Hebrews to unite together. They chose a single ruler to lead them into battle. According to the Hebrew Bible the people demanded that God give them a king. God wanted to rule over them, but gave in and had a prophet choose a man named Saul, but the prophet warned the people that he would eventually abuse the people. Saul was the first king the Hebrews ever had, but they were not yet a country. Saul had a lot of early victories.

However, according to the Hebrew Bible, Saul was not faithful and offered a sacrifice to God before a major battle instead of waiting for the prophet Samuel to come perform the sacrifice. From that moment on, God removed his blessing from him. The Hebrew Bible says that Saul began to have evil spirits come upon him from time to time. During these times he became very angry and often did things that a good king would not do. While Saul was king, a young boy began

to gain popularity with the Hebrews. According to Hebrew history, David killed a Philistine giant, Goliath, which made David famous. When he reached adulthood, he was a great warrior in Sauls army. Saul and his son Johnathan died in battle with the Philistines. David became king. David finally defeated the Philistines and drove them out of Canaan. The Hebrews united behind David and he made them a nation called Israel.

This is a famous painting of King David. Notice that he has a crown and a scepter, symbols of royal power, but he also has a flute because he was a famous musician. He was so good, he was the personal musician of King Saul.

After Davids death, his son, Solomon, became king. Solomon was also a strong king. He became allies with Egypt and Phoenicia. Trade with them made Israel very wealthy. Solomon also built a temple in Jerusalem which became a symbol of the Hebrew power and faith. Which of the following leaders would have accomplishments similar to Menes?

A. David B. Nebuchadnezzar C. Solomon D. Wudi Which of the following formed the first basic religious laws for Judaism? A. Ten Commandments B. Dead Sea Scrolls C. Vedas

D. Analects Objectives Describe how Israel divides into two separate kingdoms and explain the impact it had on their national security. Define the Diaspora and describe the circumstances surrounding it. Describe how Hebrew women were treated in Hebrew culture. Israel Invaded After Solomons death, there was a civil

war over who should be king. The nation broke into two parts, one called Israel and one called Judah. Israel was destroyed by the Assyrians, and Judah was taken over by the Chaldeans. The Chaldeans destroyed Solomons Temple and carried many Jews to Babylon as slaves by King Nebuchadnezzar. Few Jews were left behind in what was Israel. The Hebrews would eventually be The Persians were also known as the

Medes, so the Persian Empire and the Median empire are the same thing. Their leader was a man named Cyrus the Great. Whenever he conquered a new territory, he would free the people who had been enslaved by the former rulers. He gave the Hebrews their freedom, and permission to rebuild the temple and the walls around the city of Jerusalem. Even though they had the freedom to return to their homeland, very few of them did.

It had been about 80 years since they were conquered. Many did not even remember their homes. Many were born and had grown up in Babylon. Because of this, many chose not to return and spread throughout the Persian Empire. This was the first time a large number of Hebrews chose to stay away from their homeland. It is known as the first Diaspora. While many Jews returned home, they were not independent. They were a part of the Persian Empire. They would

Interactive Map Jewish Diaspora The Jews gained independence again in the 160s B.C. when a family called the Maccabees led a revolt against the Greeks Their independence only lasted about 100 years before they were conquered again by the Romans. Maccabees Revolt

Hebrew Women Like most women in the Ancient world, Hebrew women did not have many rights. They could not own land, or choose who they married. Some women still managed have a great influence on Hebrew history, however. A woman named Esther became queen during the Persian empire and saved the Jews from being wiped out by convincing the king to help save them. A woman named Deborah even led the armies of

Israel in battle over their enemies on one Who was the last king of a united Israel before the nation split into two separate kingdoms (Israel and Judah)? A. David B. Saul C. Solomon D. Nebuchadnezzar Adopted by pharaohs daughter Hears Gods voice from a burning bush

Leads Hebrews during the Exodus Who is this diagram referring to? A. Abraham B. Moses C. Saul D. David Objectives Identify the Hebrew sacred text. Define monotheism. Describe the primary beliefs of Judiasm.

Jewish Beliefs and Texts The Jews were the first monotheistic religion. Monotheism means belief in one God. The Jews believed God had guided them through prophets like Abraham, Moses, Deborah, and other leaders. Some of the main ideas of the Jewish religion are education, belief in justice, belief in righteousness, and obedience to the law.

They believe in justice and righteousness. Even the leaders must follow the religious law. King David had a soldier killed so that he could marry that soldiers wife. He was held accountable for his actions by Nathan the prophet, and God punished him for his actions. Most Jews also think religious laws are very important. Their most important religious laws were given through Moses. These laws include how to celebrate certain holidays and not to work on the

Sabbath Day which begins at sundown on Friday and end at sundown on Saturday. The laws of Moses, also called Mosaic law, forbids the Jews to eat certain foods. They may not eat the meat of any animal with a cloven hoof (sorry no bacon) or the meat of any scavenger (eats other dead animals for its food). They must also have their food prepared a certain way (kosher). Jewish Texts The most sacred book of Judaism is the

Torah. The Torah includes a history of the Jews up to the death of Moses. The Torah makes up the first of three parts of the Hebrew Bible. The Hebrew Bible is called the Tanach. The second part of the Hebrew Bible is eight books describing the messages of the prophets. The third part is made up of 11 books of poetry, songs, stories, lessons, and history. Also included in this part is a book

of proverbs, and a book of psalms. Another sacred text of the Jews is the Talmud. This book includes lessons that Jewish scholars have taught. The Dead Sea Scrolls are also very important. They give us information about Jewish history up to the Roman occupation. It also includes some of the oldest copies of Hebrew Scripture and the Old Testament. How it effects us Judaism influenced the development of

two others; Christianity and Islam. Many cultures still follow the rules of the A very important artifact that allowed historians to read about the history of the Jews during Roman rule was the ... A. Ten Commandments B. Rosetta Stone C. Hanging Gardens of Babylon D. Dead Sea Scrolls

What is the primary difference between Judaism and the other religions present at the time? A. The Jews sacrificed animals to please their god. B. The Jews believed that there was only one God. C. The Jews did not believe in an afterlife. D. Judaism does not

Objectives Describe the relationship between the Jews and the Romans. Explain how Judaism survived the destruction of Jerusalem and the expulsion of Jews outside Judea. Judaism and the Romans A group of Jews called the Zealots started a revolt against the Romans. The revolt lasted four years, but was not successful.

During this revolt, the Romans destroyed the Second Temple the Jews had rebuilt. After this revolt, the relationship between the Jews and the Romans was ruined. Many Jews were killed, and the others were made slaves. Usually, when the homeland of a people is destroyed, the culture of the people dies. This was not true to the Hebrews. Their culture remained strong, but it changed to survive.

The Jewish religion revolved around the temple ever since Solomon built it. Now that it was destroyed, the way in which Jews worshipped changed. The Jews had teachers called rabbis. They were not as powerful as the priest while the temple was around. After the destruction of the temple, they took on Since the Jews no longer had a temple, they started worshipping at local temples called synagogues. Rabbis often taught at these synagogues.

The Zealots and many other Jews kept rebelling against the Romans until eventually the Romans exiled all Jews from Jerusalem and renamed the land. The changed the name of the land from Judea to Palestine. The Jews would not have their own country again until after the Holocaust when Israel was once again made a Jewish Holiday Videos Hanukkah

TEN PLAGUES OF EGYPT Which group conquered the Chaldeans (Babylonians) and gave the Hebrew slaves their freedom allowing some to return to Canaan? A. Assyrians (Mesopotamians) B. Persians (Medes) C. Egyptians D. Philistines (Hittites)

King David chose this neutral city near the center of Israel to serve as the nations capital. A. Jerusalem B. Alexandria C. Babylon D. Kalinga Who was the man who served as Israels first king?

A. Abraham B. Moses C. Saul D. David What river made the Hebrew civilization possible in the land of Canaan? A. Jordan B. Nile C. Indus D. Tigris

Traditions and Holidays One of the ways the Jews held on to their culture was through their holidays which remind them of their past. Hanukkah This holiday is celebrated in December. It reminds the Jews of a great victory of the Maccabees when the Jews won their independence from the Greeks. When the Jews celebrate this holiday, they light a candle on their menorah each night for eight nights.

Passover Passover is celebrated in March or April. It celebrates the Exodus. It marks the last plague of Egypt when the angel of death passed over the Hebrew homes. High Holy Days The High Holy Days are the most important Jewish holidays. They are celebrated in September or October. The first two days are called Rosh Hashanah and it marks the Jewish New Year.

The second is Yom Kippur. This is the day the Jews ask God to forgive their sins. Which landform did the Hebrews have to cross as they left Egypt on their way to Canaan (the promised land) A. The Nile River B. The Sinai Peninsula C. The Mediterranean Sea D. Asia Minor

The holy book that records the religious laws and early history of the Hebrews is called the... A. Analects B. Tanach C. Vedas D. Torah The founder of Judaism _________________ lived in _________________, but was told by God to migrate to _______________. Which set of words accurately fills in the missing blanks above?

A. Moses, Egypt, Canaan B. David, Jerusalem, Egypt C. Abraham, Mesopotamia, Canaan D. Saul, Philistines, Egypt Which event was so

traumatic for the Hebrews that many never returned to Jerusalem after the Babylonian captivity? A. destruction of Solomons Temple B. slavery in Babylon C. being defeated by the Assyrians D. the Philistine invasion Which religious leaders became much more important

after the destruction of the Second Temple as the Jews scattered throughout the known world? A. rabbis B. prophets C. slaves D. priests were too little, then would I have added unto you so much more. Why have you despised the word of the LORD, to do that which is evil in My sight? Uriah the Hittite you have killed with the sword, and his wife

you have taken to be your wife Now therefore, the A. Rulers arenever the only ones from your house; because sword shall depart who have are able to you

despised Me." Hebrew Bible, Book of communicate with God. from B.Samueladapted Rulers cannot rely on JPS 1917 Edition What does this passage about Jewish beliefs? God's assistanceindicate and must trust in

themselves. C. Rulers are not able to disobey God because they have God's blessing. D. Rulers must follow the same moral standards as anybody else. [IMAGE]The above diagram represents the locations and migrations of the Hebrews before settling in Canaan. Which location best completes the chart?

A. India B. Mesopotamia C. Nubia D. Greece now the LORD my God has given me rest on every side; there is neither enemy, nor evil event. And, behold, I intend to build a house for the name of the LORD my God, as the LORD spoke to David my father, saying: 'Your son, whom I will set upon your throne in your room, he shall build the house for My A. Saul

name.' " Hebrew Bible, Book of Kingsadapted from JPSDavid 1917 EditionThis passage describes the context B. for the construction of the First Temple. Who was C. Solomon the Hebrew king who built this temple? D. Moses After the destruction of the temple and the Diaspora, Jews believed that reading the Torah was a very important way to learn about what God

wanted them to do. Which of these qualities became very important to Judaism because of this belief? A. being honest B. education C. individual worth D. monotheism Which Babylonian king enslaved many of the Jews and forced them to migrate to Babylon?

A. Cyrus the Great B. Sargon C. Nebuchadnezzar D. Solomon After a series of Jewish revolts in the Roman Empire, the Roman government got much stricter in their treatment of the Jews. Which of these was not a result of the Jewish revolts? A. Jews could no longer live in Jerusalem.

B. Romans renamed the territory from Judah to Palestein. C. The second temple was destroyed. D. All Jews living in the Roman Empire were Which of the following landforms did not border the land of Canaan?

A. Sinai Peninsula B. Egypt C. Mesopotamia D. Mediterranean Sea Which of the following phrases would not describe a Jewish belief? A. The king does not have to follow the law. B. There is only one God.

C. I am responsible for my own actions. D. I should always do the right and honest thing. According to the Hebrew Bible, what finally convinced the pharaoh to set the Hebrew slaves free? A. The Jews threatened to rebel against

Egypt. B. The 10 Plagues of Egypt C. The Exodus D. A new pharaoh took the throne and freed them. Which of the following areas was never home to the Hebrews? A. Mesopotamia B. Canaan C. Egypt

D. Asia Minor

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