Chapter 5: The Self - San Francisco State University

Chapter 5: The Self - San Francisco State University

Perspectives Perspectives on on the the Self Self Does the self exist? Yes, though the concept of self is a relatively new way of regarding people and their relationship to society. The self is seen by both Western and Eastern cultures as being divided into the: Inner, more private, self Outer, more public, self Expressions of independent self are more popular in Western cultures. Expressions of interdependent self are more common in Eastern cultures. 5-2 5-2 SelfSelfConcept The Self-Concept Refers to the Beliefs a Person Concept Holds About His or Her Attributes, and How He or She Evaluates These Qualities. Components of the Self-Concept Include: Content Content Positivity Positivity

or or Negativity Negativity Intensity, Intensity, Stability Stability Over Over Time Time and and Accuracy Accuracy 5-3 5-3 SelfSelfConcept Concept 5-4 5-4 Self-Esteem Self-Esteem Refers Refers to to the thePositivity Positivityof ofaaPersons PersonsSelf-Concept Self-Concept Real Real and

and Ideal Ideal Selves Selves Ideal Ideal -- How How aa Person PersonWould Would Like Liketo to Be Be Real Real --Realistic RealisticAppraisal Appraisal of ofWho WhoWe WeReally Really Are Are Fantasy: Fantasy: Bridging Bridging the the Gap Gap Between Between the the Selves Selves When Whenthe theGap GapBetween Betweenthe theReal

Realand andIdeal IdealSelf Selfis isLarge, Large, Those ThoseConsumers Consumersare areGood GoodTargets Targetsfor forFantasy FantasyAppeals Appeals Multiple Multiple Selves Selves The self has different components, or Role Identities, Identities that are active at specific times. They cause us to prefer different products and services. Some of the identities are more central than others (i.e. husband, boss, student). Other identities may be more dominant in certain situations (i.e. stamp collector, dancer, volunteer). Symbolic Interactionism stresses that relationships with other people play a large part in forming the self. Looking-Glass Self: Process of imagining the reactions of others toward us (self fulfilling prohecy). 5-5 5-5

Products Products That That Shape Shape the the Self: Self: You You Are Are What What You You People use an individuals consumption Consume Consume behaviors to make judgments about that 5-6 5-6 persons social identity: Clothing, grooming habits Leisure activities, Food preferences, Cars. Symbolic Self-Completion Theory predicts that people who have an incomplete self-definition tend to complete this identify by acquiring and displaying symbols associated with it. Consumption Consumption and and SelfSelfConcept Concept

5-7 5-7 Loss of Self Contribution of possessions to self-identity is most apparent when these treasured objects are lost or stolen. Self-Image Congruence Models predict that products will be chosen when their attributes match some aspect of the self. Ideal-self : more relevant for highly expressive social products. Actual-self: more relevant for everyday, functional products. The The Extended Extended Those External Objects That We Consider a Part of Self Self Us Comprise the Extended Self. 5-8 5-8 Extended Self There Are Four Levels of the Extended Self: Individual IndividualLevel Level Personal

PersonalPossessions Possessions Family FamilyLevel Level Residence Residenceand andFurnishings Furnishings Community CommunityLevel Level Neighborhood Neighborhoodor orTown Town Group GroupLevel Level Social SocialGroups Groups Sex Sex Roles Roles 5-9 5-9

Gender Gender Differences Differences in inSocialization Socialization Males: Males: Agentic AgenticGoals GoalsSuch Suchas as Self-Assertion, Self-Assertion,Mastery Mastery Females: Females: Communal CommunalGoals GoalsSuch SuchAs As Affiliation, Affiliation,Relationships Relationships Gender Gender Versus VersusSexual Sexual Identity Identity Sex-Typed Sex-TypedTraits Traits Sex-Typed Sex-TypedProducts

Products Androgyny Androgyny Roles Roles Sex Sex Roles Roles 5-10 5-10 Female FemaleGender GenderRoles Roles Homemaker Professional Career Just-a-Job Just-a-Job Cheesecake Cheesecake Male MaleSex SexRoles Roles Male Bonding Freedom of

Choices Fatherhood Fatherhood Gay Gayand andLesbian LesbianConsumers Consumers Beefcake Beefcake Body Body Image Image Body Body Cathexis Cathexis 5-11 5-11 Ideals Ideals of of Beauty Beauty Body Body Issues Issues in in Consumer Consumer Behavior Behavior

Fattism Fattism Cosmetic Cosmetic Surgery Surgery Body Body Image Image A persons feelings about his or her body 5-12 5-12 can be described in terms of Body Cathexis. Cathexis Ideals of Beauty A persons satisfaction with the physical image he or she presents to others is affected by how closely that image corresponds to the image valued by his or her culture. Examples of ideals are physical features, clothing styles, cosmetics, hairstyles, skin tones and body type. Sexual Dimorphic Markers - those aspects of the body that distinguish between the sexes. Working Working on on the the Body Body

5-13 5-13 Fattism The pressure to be slim is continually reinforced by advertising and peers. Body Image Distortions Exaggeration of appearance importance can result in disorders of great magnitude such as anorexia or bulimia. Cosmetic Surgery Consumers increasingly are electing to have cosmetic surgery to change a poor body image. Body Body Decoration Decoration and and Mutilation Mutilation Separate SeparateGroup GroupMembers MembersFrom FromNonmembers Nonmembers Place Placethe theIndividual Individualin inthe theSocial SocialOrganization Organization

Place Placethe thePerson Personin inaaGender GenderCategory Category Enhance EnhanceSex-Role Sex-RoleIdentification Identification Indicate IndicateDesired DesiredSocial SocialConduct Conduct Indicate IndicateHigh HighStatus Statusor orRank Rank Provide ProvideaaSense Senseof ofSecurity Security 5-14 5-14

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