Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Drawing to Develop Design Ideas The Many Uses of Drawing Roles of drawing in the design process Exploration Idea development Documentation

Sketching Used to get information down quickly Detail drawing More time-consuming Exploring the Visible World

Exploration How we gather information Visual sense Accounts for up to 90 percent of information humans take in Drawing

Helps understand how parts relate to one another Developing Ideas Developing solutions Involves generating and manipulating ideas First ideas are rough

Sketching allows building on ideas Successive drawings capture improvement Draftspersons hand-inked production drawings in the past Computer-aided drafting used today Documenting the Process

Documentation Collecting evidence of the thinking process A record of ideas and development work Engineers notebook Used in industry Careful record of ideas, calculations, thoughts, and plans

May be used to support a patent application Documenting the Process (contd.) Design portfolio Used in creative fields

Documents the thinking and physical work of an individual May include previous projects Communicating Through Drawing Drawing

A skill that can be learned Techniques can help develop basic skills Barriers to learning to sketch and draw Fear of not being able to sketch Fear of looking foolish

Whole-Brain Drawing Verbal thinking: left brain Visual thinking: right brain Artists use when drawing, painting, sculpting Exercises and activities Can help develop right brain

Ultimate goal Both halves of brain working together Warm-Up Exercises Exercise 1: Drawing mirror images Helps mobilize the right brain Warm-Up Exercises (contd.)

Exercise 1: (contd.) Draw the profile of a witch at the right edge of a piece of paper Draw a mirror image of the face along the left side of the paper Warm-Up Exercises (contd.) Exercise 2: Turn it upside down

Draw womans face from Figure 5-11 Next, turn picture you were copying upside down Try to copy the upside-down drawing Compare the two drawings Second drawing uses more right brain Judging distances and spatial relationships

Warm-Up Exercises (contd.) Exercise 3: Blind contour drawing Draw your hand holding a small object Travel along the contour of the hand First with eyes Then using pencil on paper Dont look at the paper

Practicing contour drawing Improves seeing details, judging distances, and controlling the drawing hand Warm-Up Exercises (contd.) Exercise 4: Positive and negative shapes

Drawing Basics Line Line width is important to a sketch HB pencil can make faint or bold lines Has different qualities: Straight, curved, sharp, fuzzy, and uniform or varied thickness

Drawing Basics (contd.) Shape/Form Two dimensional space enclosed within lines Can be natural (organic) or geometric Or combination of the two Rectilinear shapes Shapes made using only straight lines

Form Shape with three dimensions Drawing Basics (contd.) Shading Result of light falling on the objects surfaces

Value Range of shades Blackest black of your pencil is darkest value White of the paper is lightest value Drawing Basics (contd.) Light source and shading Light most often comes from one main source

Think of light source as coming over left shoulder Shade forms along their long axis Color Hue Refers to a specific wavelength of light

Chroma Describes brightness or intensity of a hue Value Sometimes refers to lightness or darkness of a hue Tints and shades

Color (contd.) Primary colors Secondary and tertiary colors Analogous colors Close to one another on the color wheel Complementary colors

Colors from opposite sides of the wheel Texture Can be nature of material itself Or result of a production process Artists tricks for simulating texture Make rubbings over an actual texture

Scans of real textures Space Five spatial cues High and low position Large and small relationships Overlapping Lines converging as they move away

Atmospheric haze makes close things sharper than faraway things Sketching and Drawing Techniques Perspective drawing

Used to represent three-dimensional objects in two-dimensional space Uses a vanishing point Isometric drawings Do not use a vanishing point Technical drawings

Contain information needed to produce item Perspective Drawing Perspective Drawing (contd.) Exercise 5: Cube in one-point perspective Perspective Drawing (contd.)

Interior views Horizon line placed slightly above center Vanishing point centered on this line Two-point perspective Viewing at an angle to the object Closest part of object is an edge not a face

Placement of horizon line depends on eye level you want to represent Perspective Drawing (contd.) Understanding perspective visually Simple aid: place transparent grid over the scene Helps organize what we see

Isometric drawing Drafting convention Covered in detail in Chapter 10 Other Drawing Conventions Crating Process of visualizing the object you want to

draw inside a box or crate Sighting for proportion Visual measurement Helps determine relative points in a drawing Outlining Stands out against the background

Other Drawing Conventions (contd.) Adding a background Contrasting background helps focus attention on the object Colored pencil techniques

Use for shading and soft transitions Good for matte surfaces Color marker techniques Using Drawings in the Design Process

Preliminary sketches Develop and present your ideas Annotated sketches Adds notes about materials, fasteners, and other features

Developmental sketches and drawings Add more detail as ideas are refined Using Drawings in the Design Process (contd.) Production drawings

Final stage Contain information needed to actually make the solution Often drawn to scale Developing an Engineers Notebook and Design Portfolio Engineers notebook

Typically bound with numbered pages Keeps written record of all completed work Design portfolio Used to show the design process to clients Aesthetic presentation is important Portfolio

Components of a portfolio Title page Page numbering Table of contents Often landscape orientation Logo Binding on the left side or the top Page content

Portfolio Page Layout

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