Chapter 5 an Industrial Nation

Chapter 5 an Industrial Nation

WESTERN EXPANSION Native American Changes & The Rise of Populism Mining and Ranching

The American West Conflicts Farming Native Americans Conflicts & a Changing Way of Life

A. Causes 1. The government began seizing Native American land and sending them to reservations. B. Effects 1. Being confined to these reservations threatened their buffalo centered way of life.

Reading & Writing Activity Whose Buffalo? Read the front and back of the handout Whose Buffalo? given to you and complete the Graphic Organizer. Follow the directions on the Graphic Organizer. Then compose a comparison/contrast

argument answering the question above. Tribes of the Great Plains Sioux Cheyenne Crow Arapaho

Kiowa Diverse Cultures Geography influenced the cultural diversity of Indians. Pacific Northwest- Klamaths, Chinooks, and Shastas benefited from the forests and fishing. New Mexico and Arizona- Pueblos irrigated land to grow corn, beans and squash, build adobe homes. Plains Indians- Sioux, Blackfeet, Crows, Cheyenne,

Comanches were great hunters and horsemen. Buffalo provided them with food, clothing, shelter, and tools. All Native American groups saw themselves as a part of nature and viewed nature as sacred while whites saw nature as a resource to make money. Chinooks Pueblos

Sioux Advancing Settlers Threaten Way of Life In the early 1880s the government began a policy of moving Native Americans off their land. ( Trail of Tears, Andrew Jackson) By the 1850s gold and silver had been discovered in the Great Plains and many whites wanted to settle and build railroads to the

plains. In 1851, the government began restricting Indians to smaller areas and by 1860s were forced to reservations. Reservation = Specific areas set aside by the government for Indians use. This restriction caused poverty and suppression.

2 More Crushing Blows to Indians Whites brought diseases to Indians which they had no immunity for. White hunters slaughtered thousands of buffalo only to get the hide and left the bodies behind. This caused the decline in buffalo which was the major source of food, clothing, and shelter for the Plains Indians.

Differences clash in land ownership Railroad Settlers trespassing on Indian Land

Discovery of gold Slaughter of the buffalo Promontory, Utah May 10, 1869 at Promontory, Utah The Wedding of the Rails Central Pacific and Union Pacific

Negotiate treaties to sell land to US Americanization or assimilation Adopt Christianity White education Individual land ownership

Adopt agriculture Map 13 of 45 Mining in the West Rebellion and Tragedy on the Plains

1862 group of Sioux Indian resisted land threats by attacking nearby white settlements in Minnesota. The result = war. Other Plains Indians also saw their rights slipping away and wanted to take part in rebellion. Indians attacked villages and stagecoach lines. The Indian Wars Sand Creek Massacre 1864

-Some 400 Indians were massacred in cold blood. These were Indians who had thought they had been promised immunity and Indians who were peaceful and harmless. Sand Creek Massacre Fall 1864 Band of Colorado militia came upon a camp of unarmed Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians at Sand Creek.

The troops opened fire and killed many men, women, and children despite the Indians attempt at friendship by holding up the U.S. flag. The massacre caused another round of warfare to break out. After Civil War ended, troops were sent out West to subdue the Indians. Peace Plans Fail Indians tried to continue to make peace but a road that was to go

directly through Sioux hunting ground to connect gold mining towns in Minnesota, caused more problems. 1886- Red Cloud and followers lured in militia troop and killed them all. Debate was raised on whether to allow Indians to live the way they were without interference or to force them to adapt to the white culture. It was concluded that Indians must adapt to white culture if peace was to ever happen.

Red River War 1874-1875 Was a series of major and minor incidents and led to the defeat of the Southern Plains Indians. Marked the end of southern buffalo herds and opened up the panhandle of Texas to white settlement. Causes: White hunters were not kept off Indian hunting land, food and supplied from government were not delivered to Natives, and whites were not punished for

their actions. Battle of the Little Bighorn 1876 (aka. Custer's Last Stand) -General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse. -Last military victory of the Sioux and Cheyenne.

CUSTERS LAST STAND Sitting Bull Crazy Horse Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer

Little Big Horn River, Montana 1876 George Armstrong Custer was sent to force the Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho back to their reservations. He was in

th command of the 7th Calvary. June 26, 1876 Sitting Bull Crazy Horse

Sioux Leaders The Battle of Little Big Horn 1876 Custer went ahead a day early and was not prepared for battle. He was heavily outnumbered and trapped. Custer & all 220 of his men died. Custers Last Stand outraged Americans and led to govt.

retribution. The Sioux and Cheyenne were crushed within a year. Little Bighorn Little Bighorn Memorial-Little Bighorn

Chief Joseph, Nez Perce Nez Perc tribal retreat (1877) Refused to recognize the authority of a 2nd treaty with the US Government reducing his

tribal land. Refusing to go to the reservation, he led his tribe on a 1,400 march trying to get to Canada. Trying to meet up with Sitting Bull. Eventually surrendered. In 3 months, the band of about 700, 200 of whom were warriors, fought 2,000 U.S. soldiers in 4 major battles and skirmishes The Ghost Dance Movement -1890 Paiute medicine man Wovoka

promised the return of the buffalo and Indian way of life. The religion prophesied the end of the westward expansion of whites and a return of Indian land. The ritual lasted five successive days, being danced each night and on the last night continued

until morning. Hypnotic trances and shaking accompanied this ceremony, which was supposed to be repeated every six weeks. Telegram to Washington, D.C. Nov. 15, 1890 "Indians are dancing in the snow and are wild

and crazy. I have fully informed you that the employees and the government property at this agency have no protection and are at the mercy of the Ghost Dancers. ... We need protection and we need it now ...nothing [short] of 1000 troops will stop this dancing." Dr. Daniel F. Royer, Agent, Pine Ridge Agency Ghost Dance 4

Indian warriors fighting against the US wore Ghost Shirts which were to stop the penetration of American soldiers bulletsIt gave them supernatural powers as was believed Ghost Shirt Ghost Shirt The Ghost Dance Movement -1890

Ghost Dance movement spread to Sitting Bull and the Sioux They religiously danced even after they were told to stop by reservation authorities. Military went to arrest Sitting Bull, where he was

killed. Many Sioux followers left the reservation and became hostile Wounded Knee Massacre 1890 - South Dakota - Between 150 and 370 Sioux men, women, and children were killed.

- The massacre shocked Americans and broke Native American resistance on the Plains. Battle of Wounded Knee Dec.1890 7thth Calvary rounded up starving and freezing Sioux and took them to Wounded Knee camp. They attempted to confiscate all weapons.

Battle of Wounded Knee Dec.1890 Violence erupted, 300 Indians and 25 whites lay dead. This is the last of the Indian conflicts. Chief Big Foot

Battle of Wounded Knee Dec.1890 The dead of Big Foot's people were buried in a mass grave. The still frozen stiff bodies were dumped unceremoniously into the hole. The United States handed out over twenty Congressional Medals of Honor

to soldiers of the Seventh Cavalry who had participated in the battle. Indian Assimilation Attempts Native American children were taken to off-reservation Indian schools where they would be taught white mans ways. Dawes Act of 1887

Quicker Americanization Assimilate, mainstreamed and absorbed into US society Adopt Christianity and White education Individual land ownership Abandon

tribe, culture and become farmers Male claimed 160 acres of land Children would be sent to Indian schools Farm land for 25 years. 1924 gain citizenship and right to vote Failed policy Indian resistance and corruption Reservation Life

1. assimilation / Americanization: Gov. officials wanted Indians to abandon their traditional culture and identity. Before and After photos at the Carlisle Indian School 2. The Dawes Act (1887) - broke up some reservations and divided the land. The best land was sold

to white settlers, - helped to establish the assimilation process, - gave Great Plains Indians section of reservation land. Reformers Criticize Government Policy

Many did disagree with how the Indians were treated. Helen Hunt Jackson wrote A Century of Dishonor Many others wrote and spoke about how Natives should be treated. Helen

Hunt Jackson (1830-1885), activist for Native American rights and author of Century of Dishonor was published in 1881. Jackson also began work on a book condemning the governments Indian policy and its record of broken

treaties. When Jackson sent a copy to every member of Congress with the following admonition printed in red on the cover: "Look upon your hands: they are stained with the blood of your relations." To her disappointment,

the book had little impact.

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