Chapter 4 Atomic Structure - Duplin County Schools
Chapter 4 Atomic Structure Pre-AP Chemistry Charles Page High School Stephen L. Cotton Section 4.1 Defining the Atom The Greek philosopher Democritus He believed that atoms were indivisible and indestructible
Daltons Atomic Theory (experiment based!) John Dalton (1766 1844) 1) All elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms 2) Atoms of the same element are identical. Atoms of any one element are different from those of any other element. 3) Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form
chemical compounds 4) In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged but never changed into atoms of another element. Sizing up the Atom Elements are able to be subdivided into smaller and smaller particles these are the atoms, and they still have properties of that element If you could line up 100,000,000 copper atoms in a single file, they would be approximately 1 cm long Despite their small size, individual atoms are observable with instruments such as scanning tunneling (electron)
microscopes Section 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom One change to Daltons atomic theory is that atoms are divisible into subatomic particles: Electrons, protons, and neutrons Discovery of the Electron In 1897, J.J. Thomson used a cathode ray tube to deduce the presence of a negatively
charged particle: the electron Modern Cathode Ray Tubes Television Computer Monitor Cathode ray tubes pass electricity through a gas that is contained at a very low pressure. Conclusions from the Study of the Electron: Eugen Goldstein in 1886 observed what is now called the proton particles with a positive charge, and
a relative mass of 1 (or 1840 times that of an electron) 1932 James Chadwick confirmed the existence of the neutron a particle with no charge, but a mass nearly equal to a proton Subatomic Particles Particle Charge Mass (g) Location
Electron (e-) -1 9.11 x 10-28 Electron cloud Proton (p+) +1 1.67 x 10-24
Nucleus Neutron (no) 0 1.67 x 10-24 Nucleus Thomsons Atomic Model J. J. Thomson
Thomson believed that the electrons were like plums embedded in a positively charged pudding, thus it was called the plum pudding model. Ernest Rutherfords Gold Foil Experiment - 1911 Alpha particles are helium nuclei The alpha particles were fired at a thin sheet of gold foil Particles that hit on the detecting screen (film) are recorded Rutherfords problem: In the following pictures, there is a target
hidden by a cloud. To figure out the shape of the target, we shot some beams into the cloud and recorded where the beams came out. Can you figure out the shape of the target? Target #1 Target #2 The Answers: Target #1 Target #2
Rutherfords Findings Most of the particles passed right through A few particles were deflected VERY FEW were greatly deflected Like howitzer shells bouncing off of tissue paper! Conclusions: a) The nucleus is small b) The nucleus is dense c) The nucleus is positively charged
Atomic Number Atoms are composed of identical protons, neutrons, and electrons How then are atoms of one element different from another element? Elements are different because they contain different numbers of PROTONS The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus
# protons in an atom = # electrons Atomic Number Atomic number (Z) of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of that element. Element # of protons Atomic # (Z) Carbon
6 6 Phosphorus 15 15 Gold 79 79
Mass Number Mass number is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an isotope: Mass # = p+ + n0 Nuclide Oxygen - 18 Arsenic 75 Phosphorus - 31 p+
n0 e- Mass # 8 10 8 18 33 42
33 75 15 16 15 31 Complete Symbols Contain the symbol of the element, the mass number and the atomic
number. Mass Superscript number Subscript Atomic number X Symbols
Find each of these: a) number of protons b) number of neutrons c) number of electrons d) Atomic number e) Mass Number 80 35 Br Symbols
If an element has an atomic number of 34 and a mass number of 78, what is the: a) number of protons b) number of neutrons c) number of electrons d) complete symbol Symbols If an element has 91 protons and 140 neutrons what is the a) Atomic number
b) Mass number c) number of electrons d) complete symbol Symbols If an element has 78 electrons and 117 neutrons what is the a) Atomic number b) Mass number c) number of protons d) complete symbol Isotopes
Dalton was wrong about all elements of the same type being identical Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. Thus, different mass numbers. These are called isotopes. Isotopes Frederick Soddy (1877-1956) proposed the idea of isotopes in
1912 Isotopes are atoms of the same element having different masses, due to varying numbers of neutrons. Soddy won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1921 for his work with isotopes and radioactive materials. Naming Isotopes We
can also put the mass number after the name of the element: carbon-12 carbon-14 uranium-235 Isotopes are atoms of the same element having different masses, due to varying numbers of neutrons. Isotope Protons Electrons Neutrons
1 1 1 2 Hydrogen-3 (tritium) Nucleus Isotopes Elements
occur in nature as mixtures of isotopes. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons. Atomic Mass
How heavy is an atom of oxygen? It depends, because there are different kinds of oxygen atoms. We are more concerned with the average atomic mass. This is based on the abundance (percentage) of each variety of that element in nature. We dont use grams for this mass because the numbers would be too small. Measuring Atomic Mass
Instead of grams, the unit we use is the Atomic Mass Unit (amu) It is defined as one-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom. Carbon-12 chosen because of its isotope purity. Each isotope has its own atomic mass, thus we determine the average from percent abundance.
To calculate the average: Multiply the atomic mass of each isotope by its abundance (expressed as a decimal), then add the results. If not told otherwise, the mass of the isotope is expressed in atomic mass units (amu) Atomic Masses
Atomic mass is the average of all the naturally occurring isotopes of that element. Isotope Symbol Carbon-12 12 C Carbon-13 13
Carbon-14 14 C C Composition of the nucleus 6 protons 6 neutrons 6 protons 7 neutrons 6 protons 8 neutrons
Carbon = 12.011 % in nature 98.89% 1.11% <0.01% - Page 117 Question Knowns and Unknown Solution
Answer The Periodic Table: A Preview A periodic table is an arrangement of elements in which the elements are separated into groups based on a set of repeating properties The periodic table allows you to easily compare the properties of one element to another The Periodic Table: A Preview
Each horizontal row (there are 7 of them) is called a period Each vertical column is called a group, or family Elements in a group have similar chemical and physical properties Identified with a number and either an A or B More presented in Chapter 6 End of Chapter 4
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