Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Notes Entity-Relationship Model E/R Diagrams Weak Entity Sets Converting E/R Diagrams to Relations Purpose of E/R Model The E/R model allows us to sketch database schema designs. Includes some constraints, but not operations.

Designs are pictures called entity-relationship diagrams. Later: convert E/R designs to relational DB designs. Framework for E/R Design is a serious business. The boss knows they want a database, but they dont know what they want in it. Sketching the key components is an efficient way to develop a working database. 4.1: The Entity / Relationship Model Entity Sets

Entity = thing or object. Entity set = collection of similar entities. Similar to a class in object-oriented languages. Attribute = property of (the entities of) an entity set. Attributes are simple values, e.g. integers or character strings, not structs, sets, etc. A relationship connects two or more entity sets. 4.1.4 E/R Diagrams In an entity-relationship diagram: Entity set = rectangle.

Attribute = oval, with a line to the rectangle representing its entity set. Example: name manf Beers Entity set Beers has two attributes, name and manf (manufacturer). Each Beers entity has values for these two attributes,

e.g. (Bud, Anheuser-Busch) Relationships A relationship connects two or more entity sets. It is represented by a diamond, with lines to each of the entity sets involved Relationships name addr Bars

name Beers Sells license Frequents Note: license = beer, full,

none manf Likes Bars sell some beers. Drinkers like some beers. Drinkers frequent

some bars. name Drinkers addr Instances of an E/R Diagram The current value of an entity set is the set of entities that belong to it. Example: the set of all bars in our database. The value of a relationship is a relationship set, a

set of tuples with one component for each related entity set. Relationship Set For the relationship Sells, we might have a relationship set like: Bar Beer Joes Bar Bud Joes Bar Miller Sues Bar Bud Sues Bar Petes Ale

Sues Bar Bud Lite Many-Many Relationships Focus: binary relationships, such as Sells between Bars and Beers. In a many-many relationship, an entity of either set can be connected to many entities of the other set. E.g., a bar sells many beers; a beer is sold by many bars. Many-One Relationships Some binary relationships are many -one from one entity set to another. Each entity of the first set is connected to at most one

entity of the second set. But an entity of the second set can be connected to zero, one, or many entities of the first set. Favorite, from Drinkers to Beers is many-one. A drinker has at most one favorite beer. But a beer can be the favorite of any number of drinkers, including zero. One-One Relationships In a one-one relationship, each entity of either entity set is related to at most one entity of the other set. Example: Relationship Best-seller between entity sets Manfs (manufacturer) and Beers.

A beer cannot be made by more than one manufacturer, and no manufacturer can have more than one best-seller (assume no ties). Many-Many and Many-one many-many many-one one-one Representing Multiplicity

Show a many-one relationship by an arrow entering the one side. Remember: Like a functional dependency. Show a one-one relationship by arrows entering both entity sets. Rounded arrow = exactly one, i.e., each entity of the first set is related to exactly one entity of the target set. Many-One Relationship Drinkers

Likes Favorite Beers Notice: two relationships connect the same entity sets, but are different. Example: One-One Relationship Consider Best-seller between Manfs and Beers.

Some beers are not the best-seller of any manufacturer, so a rounded arrow to Manfs would be inappropriate. But a beer manufacturer has to have a best-seller. In the E/R Diagram Manfs Bestseller A beer is the bestseller for 0 or 1 manufacturer.

Beers A manufacturer has exactly one best seller. Roles in Relationships Sometimes an entity set appears more than once in a relationship. Label the edges between the relationship and the entity set with names called roles.

Roles Relationship Set Husband Bob Joe Married husband Wife Ann

Sue wife Drinkers 21 Example: Roles Relationship Set Buddy1 Buddy2 Bob

Ann Joe Sue Ann Bob Joe Moe Buddies 1

2 Drinkers 4.1.9 Attributes on Relationships Sometimes it is useful to attach an attribute to a relationship. Think of this attribute as a property of tuples in the relationship set. Attribute on Relationship Bars

Sells Beers price Price is a function of both the bar and the beer, not of one alone. Equivalent Diagrams Without Attributes on Relationships Create an entity set representing values of the

attribute. Make that entity set participate in the relationship. Removing an Attribute from a Relationship Bars Sells Prices price

Beers Note convention: arrow from multiway relationship = all other entity sets together determine a unique one of these. 4.1.11 Subclasses Subclass = special case = fewer entities = more properties. Example: Ales are a kind of beer. Not every beer is an ale, but some are.

Let us suppose that in addition to all the properties (attributes and relationships) of beers, ales also have the attribute color. Subclasses in E/R Diagrams Assume subclasses form a tree. I.e., no multiple inheritance. Isa triangles indicate the subclass relationship. Point to the superclass. Subclasses

name Beers isa color Ales manf E/R Vs. Object-Oriented Subclasses

In OO, objects are in one class only. Subclasses inherit from superclasses. In contrast, E/R entities have representatives in all subclasses to which they belong. Rule: if entity e is represented in a subclass, then e is represented in the superclass (and recursively up the tree). Example: Representatives of Entities name Beers

manf Petes Ale isa color Ales 4.2 Design Techniques 1. Avoid redundancy. 2. Limit the use of weak entity sets.

3. Dont use an entity set when an attribute will do. Avoiding Redundancy Redundancy = saying the same thing in two (or more) different ways. Wastes space and (more importantly) encourages inconsistency. Two representations of the same fact become inconsistent if we change one and forget to change the other. Recall anomalies due to FDs. Example: Good name

Beers name ManfBy addr Manfs This design gives the address of each manufacturer exactly once.

Example: Bad name Beers name ManfBy addr Manfs

manf This design states the manufacturer of a beer twice: as an attribute and as a related entity. Example: Bad name manf manfAddr Beers

This design repeats the manufacturers address once for each beer and loses the address if there are temporarily no beers for a manufacturer. 4.2.5 Entity Sets Versus Attributes An entity set should satisfy at least one of the following conditions:

It is more than the name of something; it has at least one nonkey attribute. or It is the many in a many-one or many-many relationship. Example: Good name Beers name

ManfBy addr Manfs Manfs deserves to be an entity set because of the nonkey attribute addr. Beers deserves to be an entity set because it is the many of the many-one relationship ManfBy. Example: Good

name manf Beers There is no need to make the manufacturer an entity set, because we record nothing about manufacturers besides their name. Example: Bad name

Beers name ManfBy Manfs Since the manufacturer is nothing but a name, and is not at the many end of any relationship, it should not be an entity set. 4.3 Keys A key is a set of attributes for one entity set such

that no two entities in this set agree on all the attributes of the key. It is allowed for two entities to agree on some, but not all, of the key attributes. We must designate a key for every entity set. Keys in E/R Diagrams Underline the key attribute(s). In an Isa hierarchy, only the root entity set has a key, and it must serve as the key for all entities in the hierarchy

Example: name is Key for Beers name Beers isa color Ales manf

Example: a Multi-attribute Key dept number hours room Courses

Note that hours and room could also serve as a key, but we must select only one key. Weak Entity Sets Occasionally, entities of an entity set need help to identify them uniquely. Entity set E is said to be weak if in order to identify entities of E uniquely, we need to follow one or more many-one relationships from E and include the key of the related entities from the connected entity sets.

Example: Weak Entity Set name is almost a key for football players, but there might be two with the same name. number is certainly not a key, since players on two teams could have the same number. But number, together with the team name related to the player by Plays-on should be unique. In E/R Diagrams name number

Players name Playson Teams Note: must be rounded because each player needs a team to help with the key. Double diamond for supporting many-one relationship.

Double rectangle for the weak entity set. Weak Entity-Set Rules A weak entity set has one or more many-one relationships to other (supporting) entity sets. Not every many-one relationship from a weak entity set need be supporting. But supporting relationships must have a rounded arrow (entity at the one end is guaranteed). The key for a weak entity set is its own underlined attributes and the keys for the supporting entity sets. E.g., (player) number and (team) name is a key for Players

in the previous example 4.5 From E/R Diagrams to Relations Entity set -> relation. Attributes -> attributes. Relationships -> relations whose attributes are only: The keys of the connected entity sets. Attributes of the relationship itself. Entity Set -> Relation name

manf Beers Relation: Beers(name, manf) Relationship -> Relation name addr name

Drinkers husband 1 Likes manf Beers 2

Favorite Buddies Likes(drinker, beer) wife Married Favorite(drinker, beer) Buddies(name1, name2) Married(husband, wife)

Combining Relations OK to combine into one relation: 1. The relation for an entity-set E 2. The relations for many-one relationships of which E is the many. Example: Drinkers(name, addr) and Favorite(drinker, beer) combine to make Drinker1(name, addr, favBeer). Risk with Many-Many Relationships

Combining Drinkers with Likes would be a mistake. It leads to redundancy, as: name addr beer Sally 123 Maple Bud Sally 123 Maple

Miller Redundancy 53 Handling Weak Entity Sets Relation for a weak entity set must include attributes for its complete key (including those belonging to other entity sets), as well as its own, nonkey attributes. A supporting relationship is redundant and yields no relation (unless it has attributes).

Example: Weak Entity Set -> Relation name billTo Logins name At Hosts

Hosts(hostName, location) Logins(loginName, hostName, billTo) At(loginName, hostName, hostName2) At becomes part of Logins Must be the same location 4.6 Subclasses: Three Approaches 1. Object-oriented : One relation per subset of

subclasses, with all relevant attributes. 2. Use nulls : One relation; entities have NULL in attributes that dont belong to them. 3. E/R style : One relation for each subclass: Key attribute(s). Attributes of that subclass. Example: Subclass -> Relations name

Beers isa color Ales manf Object-Oriented

name manf Bud Anheuser-Busch Beers name manf Summerbrew Petes Ales color dark Good for queries like find the

color of ales made by Petes. E/R Style name manf Bud Anheuser-Busch Summerbrew Petes Beers name color Summerbrew dark Ales

Good for queries like find all beers (including ales) made by Petes. Using Nulls name manf color Bud Anheuser-Busch NULL Summerbrew Petes

dark Beers Saves space unless there are lots of attributes that are usually NULL.

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