Chapter 3: Human-wildlife Conflict and Wildlife Abundance ...

Chapter 3: Human-wildlife Conflict and Wildlife Abundance ...

CHAPTER 3: HUMAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICT AND WILDLIFE ABUNDANCE: ASSESSING WILDLIFE DENSITY AND ABUNDANCE ON MAUNGU RANCH Wildlife Abundance in Kasigau An Integral Part of CBE Dispersal area for wildlife (Maina 2004) Tsavo East and West National Parks Mt. Kasigau, an isolated peak of the Taita Hills: Recognized Biodiversity Hotspots (C.I. 2007) Kenyas Wildlife- 36% loss in wildlife populations from 1977 to 1997 in the National Parks alone (Western 2006) Knowing the amount and type of biodiversity in an area is critical to CBE and conservation efforts Community-owned Maungu Ranch (52,000 acres ) Conservation Trust Current Economic Model Ranching The shareholders own 600 cattle Cattle ranchers lease the land at 30KSH a head ($0.45USD) 2,000 head= $900USD/month Multi-Ranch Conservation Trust Conversion from a livestock-dependent economic model to a wildlife-based ecotourism model is underway. Impetus of our Study To determine the diversity and abundance of wildlife on Maungu Ranch To provide estimates for the number of cattle Our results will be made available to ranch managers Our data will also provide a baseline to determine the effects of the

transition from ranching to CBE Transect Diagram EAST NORTH 14 8 13 7 6 5 12 4 11 3 10 2 9 WEST 1 SOUTH Field Camp Systematic sampling 14 5km transects 2km apart Covered 70km Study Methods Transect Teams Members

WKU students UoN students KWS rangers Duties observation navigator recorder Range finder GPS Observations Wildlife Livestock Scat Human Activity Bomas Charcoal pits Camps Poaching Data Recorded Wildlife Abundance Study: Transects Transect # ___________ July-Aug 2007 Team Members Maungu Ranch Sighter L _______________________ UTM 37: Heading _______ Sighter R _______________________ Date _________________ Navigation

_______________________ Time _________________ KWS ranger _______________________ # Distance Bearing Common Name Herd # North East Soil Color Vegetation 1 m R G B 1 2 3 2

m R G B 1 2 3 3 m R G B 1 2 3 4 m R G B 1

2 3 5 m R G B 1 2 3 6 m R G B 1 2 3 7 m R

G B 1 2 3 8 m R G B 1 2 3 9 m R G B 1 2 3 10

m R G B 1 2 3 11 m R G B 1 2 3 12 m R G B 1

2 3 13 m R G B 1 2 3 14 m R G B 1 2 3 15 m R

G B 1 2 3 Density Analysis Methods At least two sightings on at least two transects Difference between the two estimates for each species was calculated Wilcoxon signed rank test Scat Counts and Human Activity The Ranch was divided into 4 quadrants Two transects in each quadrant except in the north Doubled in northern quadrant The quadrant with the most evidence of a particular species (including Homo sapiens sapiens) was determined EAST NORTH WEST SOUTH Field Camp Density of Cattle on the Ranch 1. Cattle were recorded along the transects

2. Cow counts at the two boreholes present on the ranch 3. An interview with the herders at one of the boreholes regarding usage 4. We asked the herders how many cattle they suspected were on the ranch. Results: Density Estimates Density estimates using distance sampling were calculated for eight species Density estimates based on strip transect sampling were calculated for 43 species Differences between the two types of density estimates were not significant (p=0.123) Red-Billed Hornbill, Fischers Starling, cattle, Kirks dik dik, impala Species Common Name Abyssinian Scimitarbill Black-throated Barbet Blue-naped Mousebird Chin-Spot Batice Cisticola Scientific Name Rhinopomastus minor Tricholaema melanocephala Urocolius macrourus Batis molitor Cisticola sp Strip Transect Est. LCL Nranch UCL 223 601 980 Distance Estimates LCL Nranch UCL Dif

1748 1987 2226 1633 184 1793 637 172 2602 972 643 3410 1308 1113 2171 2708 The 91 Species of Birds Observed on Maungu Ranch Abyssinian Scimitarbill Emerald-spotted Wood-dove Red-backed Shrike Abyssinian White-eye Fischer's Starling Red-billed Hornbill African Firefinch Fork-tailed Drongo Red-eyed Dove African Grey-hornbill Golden Pipit

Red-faced Crombec African Hoopoe Golden-breasted Bunting Red-fronted Tinkerbird African Morning Dove Golden-breasted Starling Red-necked Spurfowl African Paradise Fly Catcher Grassland Pipit Ring-necked Dove African Piped-wagtail Green-winged Pytilia Rufus Sparrow Ashy Cisticola Green-wood Hoopoe Slate-colored Boubou Banded Parisoma Greyheaded sparrow Somali Golden-breasted Bunting Bataleur Eagle Harlequin Quail Speckled Mousebird Beautiful Sunbird Hartlaub's Bustard

Spotted Thick-knee Bee Eater Heughlin's Courser Superb Starling Black-Bellied Bustard Massai Ostrich Tiata Fiscal Black-faced Sandgrouse Montagu's Harrier Hawk Veroux Eagle-owl Black-headed Weaver Mouse-colored Penduline-Tit von der Decken's Hornbill Black-shouldered Kite Namaqua Dove Wattled Starling Black-throated Barbet Night Jar White-bellied Bustard Blue-eared Starling Northern White-crowned Shrike White-bellied Go Away Bird Blue-naped Mousebird Nubian Woodpecker

White-browed Scrub-robin Brubru Peregrine Falcon White-crested Helmet-shrike Cardinal Woodpecker Peregrine Falcon Whited-headed Barbet Chin-Spot Batice Pink-Breasted Lark White-eyed Slaty Flycatcher Cisticola Pringle's Puttback White-headed Buffalo-Weaver Common Bulbul Purple Grenadier White-headed Sparrow-weaver Common Fiscal Purple Roller White-naped Raven Crested-bustard Pygmy Batis Yellow-necked Francolin Crowned-plover Pygmy Falcon

Yellow-necked Spurfowl D'Arnaud's Barbet Red Winged Lark Yellow-spotted Petronia Eastern Pale Chanting Goshawk Red-and-yellow Barbet Eastern Yellow-billed Hornbill Red-backed Shrike 21 Mammals and 10 Reptiles Observed on Maungu Ranch MAMMALS REPTILES TRACKS, CALLS & SCAT baboon Brook's gecko lion black-backed jackal line-marked tree snake hyena Burchell's zebra puff adder cattle red-necked spitting cobra cheetah red-spotted beaked snake

common duiker slender chameleon eland speckled green snake elephant tree gecko gerenuk tree skink giraffe white-throated savanna monitor Grant's gazelle unidentified ground squirrel unidentified hare honey badger impala jackal Kirk's dikdik lesser kudu mongoose ochre bush squirrel vervet monkeys warthog Scat Counts: 2,572 piles (no shit!) Most in western quadrant- near river Transect # 1 2 bustard carnivore pile* Kirk's dikdik duiker elephant unidentified fox

4 3 43 17 31 8 1 gerenuk giraffe 12 1 11 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 4

1 1 4 1 1 5 5 5 3 6 13 6 34 9 9 40 3 26 28 14 39 4 29 113 30 16 1 33

1 44 8 27 1 14 9 2 41 28 25 5 9 16 7 24 12 8 20 13 23 12 13 5 9 4 5 4 15 16 14 15 7

17 14 19 19 24 north north 9 5 2 10 4 9 3 8 3 2 15 14 37 1 2 3 21 18 3 2 1 20 west north east east east north

7 39 65 8 70 6 62 52 56 10 22 2 5 11 8 25 13 11 baboon Grant's gazelle unidentified hare Cokes Hartebeest honeybadger hyena impala jackal lesser kudu lion unidentified mongoose porcupine unidentified rodent spurfowl warthog burrow unidentified wildcat Burchell's zebra

3 1 11 1 21 1 1 2 2 27 19 24 14 1 6 1 20 0 12 11 19 1 30 19 19 20 24 1 4 25 3 13 22

9 10 4 1 20 17 3 3 1 16 15 2 2 1 23 16 9 3 4 1 1 9 12 18 3 5 1 2 1 1 14 6 14

3 1 4 55 13 1 5 1 5 1 4 1 1 4 7 12 4 5 5 Quadrant of Most Use east west west west north west south west west

south south west north north east east south Human Activities Human activities observed: charcoal pits, mining, old and inuse bomas, poachers and poachers camps. We recorded evidence of human activity most frequently in the northern quadrant Transect # charcoal pits mines old bomas current boma poachers poacher's camp 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 9 6

1 1 1 10 1 11 12 13 14 1 15 14 2 1 1 4 1 1 Quadrant of Most Use north north s and w west south east Estimations of Cattle Density Average estimate of 8,868 cattle Strip transect sampling yielded the highest estimate (9,552) Interviews about the boreholes resulted in the lowest estimate (7,700)

Method of Cattle Estimation Cattle Density Estimate on Maungu Ranch Strip Transect Estimate: Sampling 9,552 Borehole Estimate: Count 9,220 Borehole Estimate: Interview 7,700 Direct Estimate: Interview 9,000 Average 8,868 (SD=702.3902049) Discussion: Wildlife Large and diverse avian population A destination for bird watchers Bird watching is one of the largest and fastest growing segments of ecotourism (Sekercioglu 2002) Bird walk or birding hides recommended Dr. Bowker? Is that you? Discussion: Wildlife The Big Five elephant, rhino, lion, leopard, buffalo Low number of mammals observed on the transects Poaching?

Hypersensitive to the presence of humans on foot? Game drives recommended Discussion: Scat Counts Several factors bias the scat counts Experience of the observer Visibility Decomposition rate Plan tours of the ranch in areas most likely to meet the expectations of the tourists Discussion: Human Activities Charcoal burning is illegal in Kenya, but the sale of it is not unsightly destructive activity Affect on wildlife? Highest number near planned hotel for the new conservation trust Managers must address this issue as planning moves forward Discussion: Cattle Density Estimates 6,268 more cattle use the ranch for grazing than the 2,000 for which the stakeholders are being compensated This overgrazing is the largest threat to a successful CBE initiative on the Ranch. The ranch managers must quickly begin removal of the cattle Future Research Driving transects to measure mammalian wildlife densities Effects of cattle grazing, poaching, charcoal burning and mining Comparisons with the abundance of mammals in the

bordering Tsavo West National Park Baseline data to measure changes in future analyses To ensure the higher level of tourism is not negatively impacting ranch wildlife To gauge the success of the new CBE project Conclusion: The Potential for CBE Recommendations 1. The bushmeat trade must not be allowed to transition into a commercial market. 2. More information is needed regarding the informal (house-to-house) bushmeat trade. 3. A better method of crop protection must be implemented in the area, and may lead to a decrease in bushmeat prevalence. 4. The villages within the Kasigau area must be treated, to some degree, as separate entities. 5. Community members must a have realistic goals as to income and capacity-building the CBE initiative can produce. 6. The Board of Directors and managers of Maungu Ranch must quickly transition away from ranching as an economic model. 7. The Board of Directors and managers of Maungu Ranch must decrease the amount of illegal human activity on the ranch; including charcoal burning, mining and poaching. 8. The Board of Directors and managers of Maungu Ranch should utilize our data in attracting birders to the ranch and organizing game drives, walks, etc. for tourists.

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