Chapter 3 BOT3015L Biology of Flowering Plants: Reproduction ...

Chapter 3 BOT3015L Biology of Flowering Plants: Reproduction ...

BOT3015L Overview of Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Protists Presentation created by Danielle Sherdan All photos from Raven et al. Biology of Plants except when otherwise noted Tree of Life Plants (embryophytes) Angiosperms Gymnosperms, seedless, and non-vascular Animals

Endosymbiosis Cyanobacteria gave rise to chloroplasts and autotrophic protists gave rise to plants Fungi All the rest of the eukaryotes, protists (Today, focus on autotrophic protists) www.tolweb.org QuickTime and a Photo - JPEG decompressor

are needed to see this picture. Chosen examples of protists Phyla Reason for choosing Chlorophyta Gave rise to plants Rhodophyta Chloroplasts most closely resemble

cyanobacteria Phaeophyta Most complex of the algae (some exhibit meiotic gametogenesis) Dinophyta Many are autotrophic, ecological impacts Bacillariophyta Ecological impacts because they are primary

producers Oomycota Heterotrophic protist, some are plant pathogens Some ecological aspects of algae (photosynthetic protists) Plants are to land as __________ algae are to water Provide shelter, food, and substrate Base of the aquatic food chain

Environment and adaptations Human and protist affairs (some presented within) Chosen examples of protists Phyla Reason for choosing Chlorophyta Gave rise to plants Rhodophyta

Chloroplasts most closely resemble cyanobacteria Phaeophyta Most complex of the algae (some exhibit meiotic gametogenesis) Dinophyta Many are autotrophic, ecological impacts Bacillariophyta

Ecological impacts because they are primary producers Oomycota Heterotrophic protist, some are plant pathogens Chlorophyta Green algae Share some characteristics with plants: Chl a, as the reaction center pigment in PSII, a feature shared with cyanobacteria and all photosynthetic eukaryotes. Associated with oxygenic photosynthesis.

Chl b, part of light-harvesting complex that balances energy between the PSI and II and accommodates cyclic flow. Store starch in plastids Cellulose cell walls (usually for Chlorophyta) Plants (embryophytes) evolved from aquatic green algae Retention of female gametes in embryophytes is advantageous in terrestrial environments. In the coming weeks, we will be discussing more about the evolutionary trends in plants, which have become well adapted to terrestrial environments Chlorophyta examples Chlamydomonas

Above taken from Berkley site Museum of Paleontology Unicellular type ~1m Chlorophyta examples Chlamydomonas Example of one type of asexual reproduction

From Outlaw lecture Chlorophyta examples Chlamydomonas Example of one type of sexual reproduction in this phylum Zygotic meiosis From Outlaw lecture Chlorophyta examples

Volvox Colonies ~1-2mm Colonial type (one path to multicellular that was an evolutionary dead end) From Outlaw lecture Chlorophyta examples Spirogyra

Sexual reproduction Zygotic meiosis Filamentous (one path towards multicellularity) ~0.5mm Chlorophyta examples Ulva Parenchymatous (path to multicellularity that led to plants)

Sexual reproduction by alternation of generations Chlorophyta examples Acetabularia Mermaids wine glass Siphonous form Chlorophyta examples Desmids

(Charophyceae) Xanthidium Euastrum Micrasterias Chlorophyta examples Chara Apical growth Nodes and internodes

Complex reproductive structures NOT embryophytes Gametangia Top: oogonium Bottom: antheridium cm range ~0.25mm Chosen examples of protists Phyla Reason for choosing

Chlorophyta Gave rise to plants Rhodophyta Chloroplasts most closely resemble cyanobacteria Phaeophyta Most complex of the algae (some exhibit meiotic gametogenesis)

Dinophyta Many are autotrophic, ecological impacts Bacillariophyta Ecological impacts because they are primary producers Oomycota Heterotrophic protist, some are plant pathogens

Rhodophyta examples Bonnemaisonia Batrachospermum Rhodophyta examples Coralline type Important in coral reef structure

Rhodophyta examples Nori in Japanese diet Poryphyra Rhodophyta examples 2000 D. F. Kapraun Algae farmers in the Phillipines tending a Kappaphycus line culture for carrageenan (gel used in many food

products) extraction. Chosen examples of protists Phyla Reason for choosing Chlorophyta Gave rise to plants Rhodophyta Chloroplasts most closely resemble

cyanobacteria Phaeophyta Most complex of the algae (some exhibit meiotic gametogenesis) Dinophyta Many are autotrophic, ecological impacts Bacillariophyta Ecological impacts because they are primary

producers Oomycota Heterotrophic protist, some are plant pathogens Phaeophyta examples Coast of New Zealand Durvillea

Phaeophyta examples Sea palm on exposed intertidal rocks Phaeophyta examples Laminaria More algae farming Kelp harvester, California

Phaeophyta Macrocystis Coast of California Phaeophyta examples Note the air bladder adaptation Commonly rockweed Fucus

From Outlaw lecture example of meiotic gametogenesis Chosen examples of protists Phyla Reason for choosing Chlorophyta Gave rise to plants

Rhodophyta Chloroplasts most closely resemble cyanobacteria Phaeophyta Most complex of the algae (some exhibit meiotic gametogenesis) Dinophyta Many are autotrophic, ecological impacts

Bacillariophyta Ecological impacts because they are primary producers Oomycota Heterotrophic protist, some are plant pathogens Dinoflagellates phytoplankton ~0.5mm

Ceratium Gonyaulax ~1mm Cause red tide (toxic algal bloom) Fish killed by Pfiesteria, which will then feed on the decaying flesh Chosen examples of protists Phyla

Reason for choosing Chlorophyta Gave rise to plants Rhodophyta Chloroplasts most closely resemble cyanobacteria Phaeophyta Most complex of the algae (some exhibit

meiotic gametogenesis) Dinophyta Many are autotrophic, ecological impacts Bacillariophyta Ecological impacts because they are primary producers Oomycota Heterotrophic protist, some are plant

pathogens Diatoms phytoplankton Phylum Bacillariophyta Diatoms are a diverse group that account for an estimated 25% of the primary production on Earth ~0.3mm

Chosen examples of protists Phyla Reason for choosing Chlorophyta Gave rise to plants Rhodophyta Chloroplasts most closely resemble cyanobacteria

Phaeophyta Most complex of the algae (some exhibit meiotic gametogenesis) Dinophyta Many are autotrophic, ecological impacts Bacillariophyta Ecological impacts because they are primary producers

Oomycota Heterotrophic protist, some are plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans on potato From Outlaw lectures Phytophthora life cycle Phytophthora infestans infection

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