Chapter 3

Chapter 3

CHAPTER 3 Continued Peoples Choice 1940 Presidential Election FDR vs Wendell Wilkie Lazarsfeld, Berelson, Gaudet

Erie County, Ohio 3,000 interviewed/5 groups of 600 1 randomly selected MAIN panel Other were control panels Peoples Choice MAIN panel interviewed numerous times CONTROL panels only once RESULTS: Using category memberships, voting intentions and actual voting behavior were

predictable Media part of a web of influences; others were personal characteristics, social category, families, friends, other associates Peoples Choice MAIN panel interviewed numerous times CONTROL panels only once RESULTS: Using category memberships, voting

intentions and actual voting behavior were predictable Media part of a web of influences; others were personal characteristics, social category, families, friends, other associates Peoples Choice Major conclusion: media has selective and limited influence Serendipity

Two step flow of communication People chose contemporaries and they interpreted the media messages and then in turn influenced them Outcome: Limited Influence Theory Limited Influence Theory The media do not have powerful effects, but only minimal influences that are modified by other factors (such as individual differences, social categories, and social relationships) that significantly

limit those influences Studies of Childrens TV Viewing (way too many) Led to Uses and Gratifications theory Many hours a day and rising Used for fantasy; original studies said no

truly dramatic problems from this Profile for more use: 1)poor 2)grades 6-8 3)less intelligent Second Surgeon General report revealed link between viewing violence and aggression Uses and Gratifications Theory The audience was found to be active and

not passive in selecting media content for personal uses and gratifications. Choices are made on the basis of individual needs, interests, values based on all aspects of socialization. Socialization will predispose the person to select certain media they will use for diversion or entertainment or problem solving. The Bottom Line

We progressed from Magic Bullet to Selected and Limited Influence to Uses and Gratifications. All of this led to: The mass media are quite limited in their influences in people who select and attend to any particular message. If this happened with movies and TV, imagine the future of the Internet studies!

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