Mirrors and Lenses Images can be formed by reflection from mirrors. Images can be formed by refraction through lenses. Notation for Mirrors and Lenses The object distance is the distance from the object to the mirror or lens. Denoted by p

The image distance is the distance from the image to the mirror or lens. Images are formed at the point where rays actually intersect or appear to originate. Denoted by q The lateral magnification of the mirror or lens is the ratio of the image height to the object height. Denoted by M

Types of Images Images are classified as real or virtual. Real images are formed at the point the rays of light actually intersect. Real images can be displayed on screens. Virtual images are formed at the point the rays of light appear to originate. The light appears to diverge from that point. Virtual images cannot be displayed on screens.

More About Images To find where an image is formed, it is always necessary to follow at least two rays of light as they reflect from the mirror or refracted from lenses. Magnification

The lateral magnification is defined as Flat Mirror Properties of the image can be determined by geometry. One ray starts at P, follows path PQ and reflects back

on itself. A second ray follows path PR and reflects according to the Law of Reflection. Properties of the Image Formed by a Flat Mirror The image is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front. p = |q|

The image is unmagnified. The image height is the same as the object height. h = h and M = 1 More Image Properties Flat Mirror The image is virtual. The image is upright. It has the same orientation as the object.

There is an apparent left-right reversal in the image. Spherical Mirrors A spherical mirror has the shape of a segment of a sphere. A concave spherical mirror has the silvered surface of the mirror on the inner, or concave, side of the curve.

A convex spherical mirror has the silvered surface of the mirror on the outer, or convex, side of the curve. Concave Mirror, Notation The mirror has a radius of curvature of R. Its center of curvature is the point C. Point V is the center of the spherical segment.

A line drawn from C to V is called the principle axis of the mirror. Concave Mirror, Image A point source of light is placed at O. Rays are drawn from O. After reflecting from the mirror, the rays converge at

point I. Point I is called the Image point. Light actually passes through the point so the image is real. Image Formed by a Concave Mirror Section 23.2

Image Formed by a Concave Mirror, Equations Geometry can be used to determine the magnification of the image. h is negative when the image is inverted with respect to the object. Geometry also shows the relationship between the image and object distances.

This is called the mirror equation. Focal Length If an object is very far away, then p= and 1/p = 0. Incoming rays are essentially parallel. In this special case, the image point is called the focal point.

The distance from the mirror to the focal point is called the focal length. The focal length is the radius of curvature. Focal Point and Focal Length, Cont. The focal point is dependent solely on the curvature of the mirror, not by the location of the object.

f=R/2 The mirror equation can be expressed as Ray Diagram : Concave Mirror Note the changes in the image as the object moves through the focal point.

Ray Diagram for Concave Mirror, p>R The object is outside the center of curvature of the mirror. The image is real.

The image is inverted. The image is smaller than the object. Ray Diagram for a Concave Mirror, p < f

The object is between the mirror and the focal point. The image is virtual. The image is upright. The image is larger than the object. Convex Mirrors A convex mirror is sometimes called a diverging mirror. The rays from any point on the object diverge after reflection as though they were coming from

some point behind the mirror. The image is virtual because it lies behind the mirror at the point where the reflected rays appear to originate. In general, the image formed by a convex mirror is upright, virtual, and smaller than the object. Section 23.3 Image Formed by a Convex Mirror

Convex Mirror, Equations The equations for convex mirrors are the same as for concave mirrors. Need to use sign conventions A positive sign is used where the light is In front (the front side) of the mirror A negative sign is used behind the mirror. The back side

Where virtual images are formed Section 23.3 Ray Diagram and Image Formation Ray 1 is drawn parallel to the principle axis and is reflected back through the focal point, F. Ray 2 is drawn through the focal point and is reflected parallel to the principle axis. Ray 3 is drawn through the center of curvature and is

reflected back on itself. Diagram for Signs Sign Conventions for Mirrors Notes About the Rays The rays actually go in all directions from the object. The three rays were chosen for their ease of

construction. The image point obtained by the ray diagram must agree with the value of q calculated from the mirror equation. Section 23.3 Problem A concave spherical mirror has a focal length

of 15cm (a) find the image position if the object is located at 20cm (b) Find the lateral magnification (c) is the image real and inverted? (d) what if the object is at 10 cm? Draw ray diagram in each case. Problem 2 A convex spherical mirror has a focal length of 10cm (a) find the image position if the object

is located at 20cm (b) Find the lateral magnification (c) is the image real and inverted? (d) what if the object is at 10 cm and 5 cm? Draw ray diagram in each case. Ray Diagram for a Convex Mirror

The object is in front of a convex mirror. The image is virtual. The image is upright. The image is smaller than the object. Notes on Images With a concave mirror, the image may be either real or virtual.

When the object is outside the focal point, the image is real. When the object is at the focal point, the image is infinitely far away. When the object is between the mirror and the focal point, the image is virtual. With a convex mirror, the image is always virtual and upright.

As the object distance increases, the virtual image gets smaller. Section 23.3 Flat Refracting Surface The image formed by a flat refracting surface is on the same side of the surface as the object.

The image is virtual. The image forms between the object and the surface. The rays bend away from the normal since n1 > n2 Thin Lenses A thin lens consists of a piece of glass or plastic, ground so that each of its two refracting surfaces is a segment of either a

sphere or a plane. Lenses are commonly used to form images by refraction in optical instruments. Thin Lens Shapes These are examples of converging lenses. They have positive focal lengths. They are thickest in the middle. Section 23.6

More Thin Lens Shapes These are examples of diverging lenses. They have negative focal lengths. They are thickest at the edges. Focal Length of Lenses The focal length, , is the image distance that

corresponds to an infinite object distance. This is the same as for mirrors. A thin lens has two focal points, corresponding to parallel rays from the left and from the right. A thin lens is one in which the distance between the surface of the lens and the center of the lens is negligible. Focal Length of a Converging Lens

The parallel rays pass through the lens and converge at the focal point. The parallel rays can come from the left or right of the lens. Focal Length of a Diverging Lens The parallel rays diverge after passing through the diverging lens. The focal point is the point where the rays appear to

have originated. Section 23.6 Lens Equations The geometric derivation of the equations is very similar to that of mirrors. Section 23.6

Lens Equations and Signs The equations can be used for both converging and diverging lenses. A converging lens has a positive focal length. A diverging lens has a negative focal length.

See other sign conventions in the diagram. Section 23.6 Sign Conventions, Table Focal Length for a Lens The focal length of a lens is related to the curvature of its front and back surfaces and the index of

refraction of the material. This is called the lens-makers equation. Ray Diagrams for Thin Lenses Ray diagrams are essential for understanding the overall image formation. Three rays are drawn. The first ray is drawn parallel to the first principle axis and then passes through (or appears to come from) one of the focal

lengths. The second ray is drawn through the center of the lens and continues in a straight line. The third ray is drawn from the other focal point and emerges from the lens parallel to the principle axis. There are an infinite number of rays, these are convenient Section 23.6

Ray Diagram Examples Note the changes in the image as the object moves through the focal point. Section 23.6 Ray Diagram for Converging Lens, p > f The image is real. The image is inverted.

The image is on the back side of the lens. Section 23.6 Ray Diagram for Converging Lens, p < f The image is virtual. The image is upright. The image is on the front side of the lens. Section 23.6

Ray Diagram for Diverging Lens The image is virtual. The image is upright. The image is on the front side of the lens. Section 23.6 Problem 3 A BICONVEX (converging) lens has a focal

length of 15cm (a) find the image position if the object is located at 20 cm (b) Find the lateral magnification (c) is the image real and inverted? (d) what if the object is at 10 cm? Draw ray diagram in each case. Problem 4 A biconcave (diverging) lens has a focal length of 10cm (a) find the image position if the

object is located at 20cm (b) Find the lateral magnification (c) is the image real and inverted? (d) what if the object is at 10 cm and 5 cm? Draw ray diagram in each case. Lens and Mirror Aberrations One of the basic problems of systems containing mirrors and lenses is the imperfect quality of the images. Largely the result of defects in shape and form

Two common types of aberrations exist Spherical aberration Chromatic aberration Spherical Aberration Rays are generally assumed to make small angles with the mirror. When the rays make large

angles, they may converge to points other than the image point. This results in a blurred image. This effect is called spherical aberration. Spherical Aberration Results from the focal

points of light rays far from the principle axis are different from the focal points of rays passing near the axis. For a mirror, parabolic shapes can be used to correct for spherical aberration.

Chromatic Aberration Different wavelengths of light refracted by a lens focus at different points. Violet rays are refracted more than red rays. The focal length for red light is greater than the focal length for violet light.

Chromatic aberration can be minimized by the use of a combination of converging and diverging lenses. Section 23.7 Wave Optics The wave nature of light is needed to explain various phenomena. Interference

Diffraction Polarization The particle nature of light was the basis for ray (geometric) optics. Introduction Conditions for Interference For sustained interference between two

sources of light to be observed, there are two conditions which must be met. The sources must be coherent. The waves they emit must maintain a constant phase with respect to each other. The waves must have identical wavelengths. Section 24.1

Producing Coherent Sources Light from a monochromatic source is allowed to pass through a narrow slit. The light from the single slit is allowed to fall on a screen containing two narrow slits. The first slit is needed to insure the light comes from a tiny region of the source which is coherent. Old method Section 24.1

Producing Coherent Sources, Cont. Currently, it is much more common to use a laser as a coherent source. The laser produces an intense, coherent, monochromatic beam over a width of several millimeters. The laser light can be used to illuminate multiple slits directly.

Section 24.1 Youngs Double Slit Experiment Thomas Young first demonstrated interference in light waves from two sources in 1801. Light is incident on a screen with a narrow slit, So The light waves emerging from this slit arrive at a second screen that contains two narrow, parallel slits, S1 and S2

Section 24.2 Youngs Double Slit Experiment, Diagram The narrow slits, S1 and S2 act as sources of waves. The waves emerging from the slits originate from the same wave front and therefore are

always in phase. Section 24.2 Resulting Interference Pattern The light from the two slits form a visible pattern on a screen. The pattern consists of a series of bright and dark parallel bands called fringes. Constructive interference occurs where a bright

fringe appears. Destructive interference results in a dark fringe. Section 24.2 Fringe Pattern The fringe pattern formed from a Youngs Double Slit Experiment would look like this.

The bright areas represent constructive interference. The dark areas represent destructive interference. Section 24.2 Interference Patterns Constructive interference occurs at

the center point. The two waves travel the same distance. Therefore, they arrive in phase. Section 24.2 Interference Patterns, 2 The upper wave has to

travel farther than the lower wave. The upper wave travels one wavelength farther. Therefore, the waves arrive in phase. A bright fringe occurs. Interference Patterns, 3

The upper wave travels onehalf of a wavelength farther than the lower wave. The trough of the bottom wave overlaps the crest of the upper wave. This is destructive interference. A dark fringe occurs. Geometry of Youngs Double Slit Experiment

tan = y/L = y/L= = y/Ly/L Sin = y/L = y/L= = y/Ly/(y2 = y/L+L2)1/2 Interference Equations, 4 The positions of the fringes can be measured vertically from the zeroth order maximum. y = L tan L sin Assumptions L >> d d >>

Approximation is small and therefore the approximation tan sin can be used. The approximation is true to three-digit precision only for angles less than about 4 Interference Equations The path difference, , is found from the small

triangle. = r2 r1 = d sin ~ d tan (for very small )) This assumes the paths are parallel. Not exactly parallel, but a very good approximation since L is much greater than d Interference Equations, 2

For a bright fringe, produced by constructive interference, the path difference must be either zero or some integral multiple of the wavelength. = d sin bright = dy/L = m (for small angle )) m = 0, 1, 2, m is called the order number. When m = 0, it is the zeroth order maximum. When m = 1, it is called the first order maximum.

General condition for bright fringe dy/(y2 +L2)1/2 = m Interference Equations, 3 When destructive interference occurs, a dark fringe is observed. This needs a path difference of an odd half wavelength. = d sin dark = dy/L = (m + ) (for small )) m = 0, 1, 2, General condition for dark fringe, dy/(y2 +L2)1/2 = (m + 1/2)

Problem A screen is placed at 300 cm from the plane of double slits. The two slits are separated by 0.15 mm. The third order bright fringe is at 5 cm from the central maximum find the wavelength of the light used. How far will be the 5th order dark fringe from the central maximum. Use small angle approximation.