Chapter 2: Foundations of Government - bath.k12.ky.us
CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Chapter 2 Foundations of Government Section 1: Section 2: Section 3: 1 Why Americans Have Governments The First Government A New Constitution HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Section 1: Why Americans Have Governments
The Main Idea Government plays an essential role in every country. A countrys government affects the lives of its people. Often, it affects people around the world. Reading Focus What are two main types of government? What are the purposes of government? How does the U.S. government guarantee freedom to its citizens? 2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Section 1: Why Americans Have Governments Governments are influenced by: The peoples beliefs and the countrys history Dictators or absolute monarchs with
authoritarian power Ceremonial monarchs with separate governing bodies The rule of the people in a democracy 3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Section 1: Why Americans Have Governments Types of Governments Characteristics of Governments Democracy People rule directly or indirectly Direct
Representative Monarchy 4 All voters make decisions together. People elect representatives. Ruled by a king or queen Absolute Monarchs have total control. Dictatorship A person or small group has absolute power and does not answer to the people. HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT
Section 1: Why Americans Have Governments Democracies There is no absolute ruler or absolute ruling body The people rule directly (direct democracy) or through elected officials (representative democracy or republic). 5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Section 1: Why Americans Have Governments Roles of Government Provides a means for cooperation and unity among
people Enables groups of people to achieve large goals Provides protection, security, transportation, monetary assistance, education, and health related services Provides laws and a Constitution 6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Section 2: The First U.S. Government The Main Idea The American ideals that people should rule themselves and that government should protect human rights are clearly set forth in the Declaration of Independence. Reading Focus Why is the Declaration of Independence so important? What were the Articles of Confederation, and what were their weaknesses?
What was the effect of a weak national government on the United States? 7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Section 2: The First U.S. Government The Declaration of Independence Upholds the philosophy on which the United States is based Is a statement of the American ideals Declares that the purpose of government is to protect human rights Stresses equality among individuals 8 HOLT, RINEHART
AND WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Section 2: The First U.S. Government Limitations of the Articles of the Confederation: Congress had difficulty passing important measures. There was no executive branch to ensure that new laws would be 9 carried out. There were no national courts to interpret the laws and uphold them. A unanimous vote was required to make changes to the Articles of the Confederation. There was no money to pay for expenses or services. Each state regulated its own trade and had its own currency.
Conflicts between the states and Congress developed. HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Section 2: The First U.S. Government difficult to pass laws because 9 out of 13 states approval was needed no judicial branch to interpret laws 10
difficult to change Articles because unanimous vote was needed WEAKNESSES OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION no executive branch to enforce laws lacked power to collect taxes no means to regulate trade with foreign countries HOLT, RINEHART AND
WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Section 2: The First U.S. Government Effects of a weak national government: Had no power to operate effectively or settle disputes The country lacked a national identity. The states quarreled over boundary lines and trade. The country looked weak to other nations. 11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT
Section 3: A New Constitution The Main Idea The framers of the U.S. Constitution drew upon a history of democratic ideals while developing a document that would establish a new, stronger federal government. Reading Focus What historical principles of government influenced the delegates to the Constitutional Convention? How did the U.S. government become stronger under the Constitution? How did the viewpoints of Federalists and Antifederalists differ, and how were these differences resolved? 12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Section 3: A New Constitution
Principles of Great Britains government that influenced the delegates: Magna Cartafree people cannot be arrested without a trial by jury of their peers; Parliaments rights are protected; English citizens only judged by English laws English Bill of Rightsright to petition a change of laws; right to a fair punishment Parliamentary governmenta bicameral body; a prime minister administers the government and can be replaced by a majority vote 13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Section 3: A New Constitution The U.S. government became stronger under the Constitution.
A federal system was established. Powers included the coining and printing of money, raising armed forces, trade regulations, and levying taxes. Provisions for an executive and a judicial branch were established. 14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Section 3: A New Constitution A STRONGER U.S. GOVERNMENT Powers of the National Government Print money Raise armed forces
Regulate trade Set taxes 15 Powers Dealing with Laws Provide a president to carry out the countrys laws Establish the Supreme Court and other national courts to interpret laws HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Section 3: A New Constitution Differences among Federalists and Antifederalists: Federalistsstrong national government would
keep the country united Antifederalistsstrong national government would not protect the peoples freedoms and would take power from the states A bill of rights was proposed to outline the rights of the people under the Constitution. 16 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Chapter 2 Wrap-Up 1. What are two of the major factors that shape a countrys government? 2. How are a democracy and other types of governments different? 3. What were the key purposes of the Declaration of Independence?
4. What were some of the problems the country faced after independence was declared? 5. In what ways did the colonists English political heritage influence American ideas about government and individual rights? 6. What was the outcome of the Constitutional Convention? 7. What were the arguments of the Federalists and Antifederalists? 17 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
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