Chapter 19

Chapter 19

Chapter 19 Early Latin America Map Skills Where is Portugal? Where are Portugals colonies? Where is Spain? Where are the Spanish colonies?

Conquest of the Americas Three Periods in the development of Early Latin America 1) 1492-1570-conquest 2) 1570-1700-consolidation and maturity 3) 18th century-reform and reorganization Why the Iberians

Both Spain and Portugal had strong military traditions Their countries were heavily urban Many of the people who came wanted to succeed and become noble. So they were driven Families were patriarchal, but women had an active role Already had a tradition as slave holding societies The paths of conquest led in 2 directions:

Mexico and South America God, Gold, and Glory. Why were the Spanish successful? Horses, firearms, steel weapons, leadership, disease, internal divisions and rivalries among the Indian tribes The Moral Question Take a minute and discuss:

Can you justify Conquest Spread the holy word Control the Indian labor Free from unjust lords and bring salvation They were not fully human Colonialism and Labor Spain Economy

agrarian society 80% lived and worked on the land Also large scale farming Sugar, tobacco, cotton What happens to prices when other countries get involved? Mining became very important Gold and Silver

Silver is GOOD The Spanish system was based upon silver. Potosi: Peru largest mine of all Continuous wealth was flowing into Spain Treasure ships made a regular round Galleons And flowing out of Spain. . . AND MOSTLY TO CHINA

Silver is BAD The massive amounts of silver flowing into Europe had caused inflation. Treasure never accounted for more that 25% of Spains revenueso it depended more on taxes than treasure Because thee was so much silver flowing into Spain, bankers kept loaning the government more many because they assumed they could make a profit on the silver. So why did Sancho de Moncado write in 1619 the the

poverty of Spain resulted from the discovery of the Indies.? Trade Controlled very closely All trade done through the part at Seville and only the Spanish could trade with Latin America Monopoly Able to keep prices high

Encomiendas Grant of indigenous people to individual Spaniards given to conquerors, which allowed them to use local inhabitants as laborers Practice quickly ends to prevent growth of a new-world nobility What does this system remind you of? Haciendas

Spanish ranches and rural estates Developed due to a decrease in Indian population Owning Land and not people Bases of wealth and power for the local aristocracy Outcomes of Labor Formation of castas People of mixed race

Over 100 different variations Varied by region What is this social hierarchy based on? What happens over time? General Order (Top to Bottom)

Very Basic there are a lot of rules Peninsulares: White born in Spain Criollos: Fully Spanish born in America Indios: Original inhabitants of America Mestizos: One Spanish and One American

Parent Mulattos: One Spanish and One Black Parent Negros: Africans Spain and Portugal Government Spain

The Spanish Bureaucracy 1. The King ruled through the Council of the Indies: Located in Spain Viceroy: High ranking noble who directly represents the king in Latin America 2 viceroyalties in the West Indies Mexico City Lima 2. Viceroyalties subdivided into 10 judicial divisions

Controlled by audiencias: judicial courts Staffed by official royal magistrates Spanish Bureaucracy cont. 3. Royally appointed magistrates carried out laws on the local level The Clergy were along branch of the state Conversion Catholic church held great influence on the colonists

Brazil Brazil The Portuguese and Spanish claims had been decided by the Treaty of Tordesillas Little in the region originally interested the Portuguese until the French showed interest in woods from the region Where the towns were established, and the

Indians were peaceful, they began to establish sugar plantations with Indian, and then African slaves Labor and the Economy Brazil Plantation Economy Gold and Sugar Both very labor intensive

Slaves were needed to do the work By 1800 150,000 slaves had been brought of the total population Like Spain, Portugal had little or no industry of its own, but with the gold, they could buy whatever they needed. But what will happen when the gold runs out? GOLD

Found by woodsmen near Sao Paulo Paulistas Opened the interior to settlement which was devastation for the Indian population. Opened new areas for mining and ranching Biggest problemPortugal had a trade imbalance on its handshow? Worlds leading sugar

producer sugar Combo agricultural and industrial Cut the Sugar Turn the sugar into something usable

Large number of workers for VERY hard work 18th Century Reforms Shifting What was happening in Europe at this time with intellectual thought? Spain more or less monopoly of the West Indies

Unable to hold onto their mercantile interests Other countries wanted to trade Colonies were very self sufficient Loosing territories England, France and Holland Crisis, The beginning of the end Charles II dies (Spain) NO HEIR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Was of the Spanish Succession Treaty of Utrecht Puts a French Family (Bourbon) on the thrown Allows England to trade Spanish Monopoly is broken Bourbon Reforms Good Stuff to know Basic Information that we cant

spend too much time on but you need to know Terms to know for sure

encomiendas: grants of estates Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Latin America; established a framework

for relations based on economic dominance.. galleons: large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World Colonies to Spain; basis of convoy system utilized for transportation of bullion.

Treaty of Tordesillas: concluded in 1494 between Castile and Portugal; clarified spheres of influence and rights of possession; in the New World Brazil went to Portugal and the rest to Spain. Recopilacin: body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish New World possessions; bases of law in the Indies.

Council of the Indies: Spanish government body that issued all laws and advised king on all issues dealing with the New World colonies Pedro Alvares Cabral: Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; landed Brazil in 1500.

Paulistas: backswoodsmen from So Paulo, Brazil; penetrated Brazilian interior in search of precious metals during 17th century. Minas Gerais: Brazilian region where gold was discovered in 1695; a gold rush followed. Hispaniola: 1st island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards by Columbus

on his second voyage. Bartolom de las Casas: Dominican friar who supported peaceful conversion of native American population; opposed forced labor and advocated Indian rights. Hernn Corts: led expedition to Mexico in 1519; defeated Aztec empire and established Spanish colonial rule. Moctezuma II: last independent Aztec ruler; killed during Corts's

conquest. New Spain: Spanish colonial possessions in Mesoamerica in territories once part of Aztec imperial system. Francisco Vcquez de Coronado: led Spanish expedition into the southwestern United States in search of gold. Question yourself: The answers are at the end of the slides

1. What aspects of Iberian society were transferred to the New World? 2. What model for American colonization was established in the Caribbean? 3. What was the nature of the exploitation of Indians in the Americas? 4. How did the discovery of gold and diamonds change the economic organization of Brazil?

Good stuff to keep in mind Stuff from this chapter that goes with the APWH Themes Key Concept 1: Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange European technological developments in cartography and navigation built on previous knowledge developed in the classical, Islamic

and Asian worlds, and included the production of new tools, innovations in ship designs, and an improved understanding of global wind and currents patternsall which made transoceanic travel and trade possible Remarkable new transoceanic maritime reconnaissance occurred in this period

Portuguese development of a school for navigation led to increased travel to and trade. This results in the construction of a global tradingpost empire Spanish sponsorship of the first Columbian and subsequent voyages across the Atlantic and Pacific dramatically increased European interest in transoceanic travel and trade The new global circulation of goods was facilitated by royal chartered European monopoly companies that

took silver from Spanish colonies in the Americas to purchase Asian goods from the Atlantic markets but regional markets continued to flourish in Afro-Eurasia by using established commercial practices and new transoceanic shipping services Commercialization and creation of global economy connected to new global circulation of American silver Influenced by mercantilism, joint-stock companies were new methods used to control the domestic and colonial economies The Atlantic system involved the movement of goods wealth

and free and unfree laborers and the mixing of African, American and European cultures and people The new connections between the Eastern and Western hemispheres resulted in the Columbian Exchanged European colonization of Americas led to the spread of disease American foods became staple crops in Europe, Asian and Africa. Other crops were grown on plantations with coerced

labor were exported mostly to Europe and the middle East Populations in Afro-Eurasia benefitted nutritionally from the increased diversity of American food crops European colonization and the introduction of European agriculture and settlements practices in the Americas often affected the physical environment through deforestation and soil depeletion. Key Concept 2. New forms of social organization and modes of production

Traditional peasant agriculture increased and changed, plantations expanded, and demand fro labor increased. These changes both fed and responded to growing global demand for raw materials and finished products Peasant labor grew in many places The Atlantic slave trade increased demand for slaves The purchase and transport of slaves supporeted the growth of the plantation economy throughout the

Americas Spanish colonists transformed Amerindian labor system Introducing the encomienda and hacienda systems or changing the Inca labor obligation into a forced labor system A new social and political elites changed, they also restructured new ethnic, racial and gender hierarchies Both imperial conquests and widening global economic opportunities contributed to the

formation of new political and economic elite The massive demographic changes in the America resulted in new ethnic and racial classifications Mestizo, mulatto or Creole Key Concept 3: State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion Imperial expansion relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons and armed trade to

establish large empires in both hemispheres European states, including Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, France and Britain, established new maritime empires in the Americas Competition over trade routes, state rivalries, and local resistance all provided significant challenges to state consolidation and expansion

Answers to the question yourself section 1. Heavy urbanization in Iberian peninsula reproduced in American colonies; use of planned cities; not an even population distribution; emphasis on nobility carried over to America; belief of conquerors of right to Indian labor as new form of serfdom; patriarchal society; encomienda system; slaveholding; slave trading; plantation agriculture. 2. Columbus attempted to employ West African model of colonial administration in Caribbean trade forts, private investment under royal contract, trade and gold and slaves; modified after Columbuss family removed as primary administrators. 3. Mita- enforced labor (serfdom) of the Indians- worked by the lower classes, like slavery in some ways. Purpose?: to provide labor for the silver/gold mines + SUGAR estates. Slavery of Indians causes

depopulation of the Indians- instigates the labor trade from Africa. Encomiendas- A grant to land/labor from Native Americans to Spanish- Given by the crown to the Conquistadors (Peninsulares). 4. Mines were worked by slaves. Government controls followed to tightly manage a production which peaked between 1735 and 1760. Brazil then was the greatest source of gold in the Western world. The gold, and later diamond discoveries, opened the interior to settlement, devastated Indian populations, and weakened coastal agriculture. The government managed to reinvigorate coastal agriculture and control the slave trade, while the mines stimulated new ventures in farming and ranching. Rio de Janeiro, nearer to the mines, became a major port and the capital in 1763. A societal hierarchy based on color remained in force. The gold and diamonds did not contribute much to Portuguese economic development. The resources gained allowed Portugal to import manufactures instead of creating its own industries.

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