Chapter 18Communication and Collaboration - Quia

Chapter 18Communication and Collaboration - Quia

18 John R. Schermerhorn, Jr. Daniel G. Bachrach Management 13 edition CHAPTER 18 COMMUNICATION AND COLLABORATION th PLANNING AHEAD KEY TAKEAWAYS Describe

the elements in the communication process. Identify ways to improve the effectiveness of communication. Discuss how conflict can be functional and managed successfully. Explain ways to negotiate successfully and avoid negotiation pitfalls. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CHAPTER 18 OUTLINE 1. The Communication Process a)

b) c) d) 2. Effective communication Persuasion and credibility in communication Communication barriers Cross-cultural communication Improving Collaboration Through Communication a) b) c) d)

e) Transparency and openness Use of electronic media Active listening Constructive feedback Space design Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CHAPTER 18 OUTLINE 3. Managing Conflict a) b) c) d)

4. Functional and dysfunctional conflict Conflict resolution Conflict management styles Structural approaches to conflict management Managing Negotiation a) b) c) d) Negotiation goals and approaches Gaining agreements Negotiation pitfalls

Third-party dispute resolution Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Communication An interpersonal process of sending and receiving symbols with messages attached to them Key elements of the communication process: Sender Message

Communication channel Receiver Interpreted meaning Feedback Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. FIGURE 18.1 THE INTERACTIVE TWO-WAY PROCESS OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION

Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Effective communication: Effective Occurs when the intended meaning of the sender is fully understood by the receiver Efficient communication communication

Occurs at a minimum resource cost Potential trade-offs between effectiveness and efficiency must be recognized Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Persuasion and credibility in communication Communication is used for sharing information and influencing other people Persuasion is getting someone else to support the message being presented

Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Persuasion and credibility in communication Expert power and referent power are essential for persuasion Credibility involves trust, respect, and integrity in the eyes of others Credibility can be built through expertise and relationships Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS

Communication Barrier: Information filtering Poor choice of channels Poor written or oral expression Failure to recognize nonverbal signals Physical distractions Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. FIGURE 18.2 DOWNSIDES OF NOISE, SHOWN AS ANYTHING THAT INTERFERES WITH THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Information filtering Intentional distortion to make it more favorable to the recipient Subordinates may hide unfavorable news from the manager or make it sound better than it really is Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Poor choice of channels Choose

the channel that works best Written channels work for messages that: Are simple and easy to convey Require extensive dissemination quickly Convey formal policy or authoritative directives Spoken channels work best for messages that: Are complex or difficult to convey where immediate feedback is needed Attempt to create a supportive, even inspirational, climate

Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Poor written or oral expression Communication only effective when the sender expresses the message in a way understood by receiver Chose words wisely Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Failure to recognize nonverbal signals Nonverbal

communication takes place through gestures, facial expressions, body posture, eye contact, and use of interpersonal space Mixed messages occur when a persons words and nonverbal signals communicate different things Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Overloads and distractions Availability and abundance of electronic communications and social media can make it

hard to communicate well Some statistics: Professionals are spending 28% of their time dealing with e-mail Average business person deals with 108 e-mails per day People check their e-mail inboxes as many as 74 times per day Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Cross-cultural communication Global economy frequently creates the need

to communicate with colleagues in other countries with different cultures Ethnocentrism Tendency to consider ones culture superior to any and all others Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. IMPROVING COLLABORATION THROUGH COMMUNICATION Effective communication is necessary for successful collaboration Transparency and openness

Use of electronic media Active listening Constructive feedback Active listening Feedback Space design Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. IMPROVING COLLABORATION THROUGH COMMUNICATION Transparency and openness Communication transparency involves sharing honest and complete information about the organization and workplace Open book management

Managers provide employees with important financial information about their companies Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. IMPROVING COLLABORATION THROUGH COMMUNICATION Using electronic media Information technologies facilitate communication The electronic grapevine speeds messages and information from person to person E-mail privacy

Employers policy on personal e-mail Dont assume that e-mail privacy exists at work Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. IMPROVING COLLABORATION THROUGH COMMUNICATION Active listening The process of taking action to help someone say exactly what he or she really means Guidelines

for active listening: Listen for message content Listen for feelings Respond to feelings Note all cues, verbal and nonverbal Paraphrase and restate Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. IMPROVING COLLABORATION THROUGH COMMUNICATION Feedback The

process of telling others how you feel about something they did or said, or about the situation in general (evaluative, interpretive, descriptive) Constructive feedback guidelines: Give it directly Make it specific Give it when the receiver is willing/able to accept it Make sure it is valid Give it in small doses Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

IMPROVING COLLABORATION THROUGH COMMUNICATION Space design Proxemics is the study of how we use space Interpersonal space is an important nonverbal cue Workspace layout is often overlooked as a form of nonverbal communication but is being increasingly recognized for its impact on communication and behavior Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MANAGING CONFLICT

Conflict A disagreement between people on: Substantive issues regarding goals and tasks, allocation of resources, distribution of rewards, policies and procedures, and job assignments Emotional issues arising from feelings of anger, distrust, dislike, fear, and resentment, as well as personality clashes Conflict that is well managed can help promote creativity and high performance

Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MANAGING CONFLICT Functional conflict Moderately intense conflict Constructive and stimulates people toward greater work efforts, cooperation, and creativity Dysfunctional conflict

Low-intensity and very high-intensity conflict Destructive and hurts task performance Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. FIGURE 18.3 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONFLICT AND PERFORMANCE Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MANAGING CONFLICT Causes of conflict: Role ambiguities Resource scarcities

Task interdependencies Competing objectives Structural differentiation Unresolved prior conflicts Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MANAGING CONFLICT Conflict resolution is the removal of the substantial and emotional reasons for a conflict Peoples conflict management styles are different Cooperativeness

is the desire to satisfy the other partys needs and concerns Assertiveness is the desire to satisfy ones own needs and concerns Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MANAGING CONFLICT Conflict management styles: Avoidance (withdrawal) Uncooperative and unassertive Accommodation

Cooperative and assertive Competition (smoothing) (authoritative command) Uncooperative and assertive Compromise Moderately cooperative and assertive

Collaboration (problem solving) Cooperative and assertive Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. FIGURE 18.4 ALTERNATIVE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MANAGING CONFLICT Conflict management styles: Lose-lose conflict

Win-lose conflict Win-win conflict Management by avoidance or accommodation Management by competition and compromise Management by collaboration Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

MANAGING CONFLICT Structural ways to manage conflict: Make resources available Appeal to higher goals Change the people Change the environment Use integrating devices Provide training Change reward systems Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MANAGING CONFLICT Integrative devices for managing conflicts:

Using liaison personnel, special task forces, cross-functional teams, or a matrix organization Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MANAGING NEGOTIATION Negotiation The process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have different preferences All negotiation situations are susceptible to conflict and require exceptional

communication and collaboration skills Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MANAGING NEGOTIATION Negotiation goals and approaches: Substance goals Concerned with outcomes Tied to the content issues of negotiation Relationship goals

Concerned with processes Tied to the way people work together Effective negotiations occur when: Issues of substance are resolved Working relationships are maintained or improved Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MANAGING NEGOTIATION Criteria for effective negotiation:

Quality Negotiating a wise agreement that is truly satisfactory to all sides Cost Negotiating efficiently, using minimum resources and time Harmony Negotiating in a way that fosters interpersonal relationships

Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MANAGING NEGOTIATION Types of negotiation: Distributive negotiation Focuses on claims made by each party Leads to win-lose outcomes Principled (or integrative) negotiation

Goal is to base the outcome on the merits of individual claims Leads to win-win outcomes Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MANAGING NEGOTIATION Rules for gaining integrative agreements: Separate the people from the problem Focus on interests, not on positions Generate many alternatives before deciding what to do Insist that results be based on some objective standard

Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. FIGURE 18.5 THE BARGAINING ZONE IN CLASSIC TWO-PARTY NEGOTIATION Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MANAGING NEGOTIATION Bargaining zone Common negotiation pitfalls: Falling prey to the myth of the fixed pie Nonrational escalation of conflict

Overconfidence and ignoring others needs Too much telling and too little hearing Premature cultural comfort Trap of ethical misconduct Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MANAGING NEGOTIATION Ethical issues in negotiation High ethical standards should be maintained Profit motive and the competitive desire to win sometimes lead to unethical behavior Unethical negotiating behavior can lead to short-term gains but long-term losses

Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MANAGING NEGOTIATION Third-party dispute resolution Mediation Involves a neutral third party who tries to improve communication between negotiating parties and keep them focused on relevant issues Arbitration Involves a neutral third party who acts as a judge and issues a binding decision Ombudsperson is a neutral third party who listens to complaints in an attempt to resolve disputes

Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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