Chapter 15

Chapter 15

CHAPTER 15 Reform CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE CONSCIENCE AND THE GREATER GOOD IS ABOVE THE LAW. Thoreau's Civil Disobedience espouses the need to prioritize one's conscience over the dictates of laws. It criticizes American social institutions and policies, most prominently slavery and the Mexican-American War. Thoreau LITERATURE CREATES SOCIETYS CONSCIENCE

The Second Great Awakening in 1820s and new religious groups formed in 1830-40s brought Christian ideals into peoples lives. Tom was Christ sacrificing himself so others may have lived; Eva was the messenger from heaven asking for the freedom of slaves Abolition Groups Uses of religion, slavery was in the Bible, so it was justified, but faith prompted slaves to question the laws (Fugitive Slave Act law to return runaways) Quakers Abolitionist (Society of Friends); Underground Railroad activists network to conduct slaves to Freedom Temperance campaign to end alcohol abuse because it damaged families and lives (Augustine) Women Women demanded rights in courts, to vote, to keep their own property/money, and worked to reform societys ills Ophelia lived with male relative; Marie sold the slaves because they were property

Uncle Toms Cabin Literatures impact upon society Fredrick Douglass African American born into slavery, taught self how to read and write, escaped to freedom to speak out against slavery. His abolitionist newspaper was the North Star. Dorothea Dix champion of the mentally ill, who took them out of the prisons and opened hospitals to care for them.

During the Civil War she would be the head nurse for the US Army and drilled cleanliness and trained nurses to care for the mentally ill. She was the most useful and amazing woman America has ever produced. Horace Mann felt all Americans should be educated if they were to live in free country. He advocated for schools for the poor, taxation for public schools, the training of teachers, and curriculum all children should learn. He felt education was the best weapon against poverty and the way the US would have citizens who understood political issues for voting.

Harriett Tubman Escaped slave that became a conductor on the Underground Railroad and led 300+ slaves to their freedom. Her code name was Moses and she acted as a spy for the Union during the Civil War. Sojourner Truth slave freed by state law changes in NY that spoke against slavery and for womens rights. Her real name was Isabella Baumfree, but took her new name as her goal of influencing womens lives that she would journey forth and tell the truth about conditions of women

and slaves. Elizabeth Cady Stanton The major leader and organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention 1848. Wrote most of the philosophy of the womens rights movement; spoke for the civil rights of all people; after her 7 children were raised she traveled the country as a paid speaker. Wrote the 19 th amendment, but died before it was ever ratified in 1920. Stantons idea of women having the right to divorce was controversial enough to split the group into two separate groups: one lead by Anthony and Stanton and the other led by Stone. Susan B. Anthony

teacher, Quaker, friend of Stanton, swore to never marry; spoke out for the abolition slavery and womens right to vote. Traveled across the United States from 1848-1902 as the champion of suffrage for all. She voted in the NY elections, was arrested and tried for breaking the law, after the Supreme Court ruled against women as each state had the right to determine its own voting rules, the South started poll tax and tests to keep the African Americans from voting as guaranteed by the 14 th amendment. CH 15 MINI TEST 2 POINTS EACH 1. What was the theme of UTC/chapter 15?

Sojourner Truth 2 opened hospitals to care for mentally ill Reform 3 North Star editor and abolitionist 4 Moses Susan B. Anthony

5 journey forth and tell the truth Horace Mann 6 felt education was the best weapon against poverty Elizabeth Cady Stanton 7 Peacefully break the law to change it Fredrick Douglass

8 Author of Uncle Toms Cabin 9 voted in the NY elections, was arrested Dorthea Dix 10 It was a good thing she was not a boy.spoke for the civil rights of all people: protection of womens rights movement; Harriet Tubman

Harriet Beecher Stow Henry David Thoreau TRUE OR FALSE ABOUT REFORMS 11 Reform is ongoing and begins with the individual. 12 Barbers were like doctors in the 1800s and did tooth pulling and minor surgeries with better success rates. 13 The womens rights movement is not over.

14 Susan B. Anthony read Elizabeth Cady Stanton's speeches and both lived to see women vote. 15 The right to own property, control wages, vote, and participate in making laws should be for all people if they are to be protected by the law. 16 Antislavery movements helped women learn how to organize, speak publically, and motivate them to free themselves from the rule of the fathers and husbands. 17 Temperance movements and the Second Great Awakening called on all Americans to cure societys ills.

18 Sometimes reform is changing the way society views the handicapped, the mentally ill, and crime. 19 Mental illness was first treated with imprisonment, but today many are in jails or prisons. 20 Death, suffering, and tragedy usually draw groups to reform. HIGHLIGHTS OF CHAPTER 16 Robert Fulton Fultons Folly was the nickname of the Clermont. His flat bottomed steamships made

travel along the Mississippi possible. Opened up trade for the interior of the country and cut travel time. 5mph upstream! Samuel Morse developed a dash-dot system to send messages across wires long distance. His first message was: What hath God wrought! Information within minutes from weeks or months depending on time. His invention ended the Pony Express business. John Deere invented the steel plow, a lighter and sharper easier to

use tool that allowed more ground to be cultivated enlarging cotton fields and slave owning profitable Cyrus McCormick a right curious machine was a grain harvesting reaper that was 14 times faster than 2 men cutting with scythes. Elias Howe patented the sewing machine huge time saving for the making of clothing in Northern

factories and lowering the cost of clothes. Nat Turner Virginia religious leader who preached to other slaves. He was born with marks on his body that his mother told him marked him for greatness. He believed God had chosen him to lead the slaves to freedom. 1831 he lead 60 slaves on attacks. His master and masters family were killed. White reaction was so extreme that they hunted and killed many more African Americans and increased stricter slave code laws. Eli Whitney 1808 the slave trade

became illegal in the United States, so the smuggling of slaves increased with his gin, any African American was endanger of being forced into slavery even if they had been freed. Tensions over slavery increased. Southerners: Slavery was okay because it was in the bible and African American need to be cared for because of little intellectual ability. 1. Steam power made travel fast, shipping cheap,

LISTENING QUIZ 2. Led a revolt, killed many whites, created fear. Eli Whitney Elias Howe 3. Fought for better treatment of mentally challenged

Samuel Morse 4. Newspaper man for antislavery Susan B. Anthony Fredrick Douglass 5. She never married and fought for suffrage for all Dorothea Dix

6. Women had right to divorce Nat Turner Cyrus McCormick 7. 1850 1860 was a time for change or John Deere

Robert Fulton Elizabeth Cady Stanton Reform Sojourner Truth 8. Men who created machinery to cultivate more land for more slaves to work: 9. Cotton Gin 50 times faster slavery was profitable

10. His sewing machine created a need for women in factories. ANSWERS TO QUIZ 1. Steam power made travel fast, shipping cheap, and replaced tailors with factories. 2. Led a revolt, killed many whites, created fear. 3. Fought for better treatment of mentally challenged 9 Eli Whitney 10 Elias Howe Samuel Morse (what) 5.Susan B. Anthony 4. Newspaper man for antislavery 4. Fredrick Douglass

5. She never married and fought for suffrage for all 3.Dorothea Dix 6. Women had right to divorce 2. Nat Turner 7. 1850 1860 was a time for change or 8 Cyrus McCormick 8. Men who created machinery to cultivate more land for more slaves to work:

8 John Deere 9. Cotton Gin 50 times faster slavery was profitable 1. Robert Fulton 6.Elizabeth Cady Stanton 7.Reform

Sojourner Truth (who) 10. His sewing machine created a need for women in factories. CHAPTER 16 SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES 1 Property was owned by white males Choices A North B South C Both D Neither E UTC 2 nativists 3 little pay

4 Communication was strong with more telegraph lines and rail lines 5 Economy was based on cotton growing 6 yeomanry 7 Economy was based on supplying cotton for manufacturing cloth 8 Immigrants made up the labor force 9 steamboats decreased travel time 10 Feared African Americans would take jobs 11 Worked during day light hours in terrible conditions with no rights Choices A North B South C Both D Neither E UTC

12 Rivers were used to transport goods, mail, and news 13 Abolitionists organized the Underground Railroad 14 Stowes catalyst for social change 15 Belonged to the US 16 Slavery was a right 17 Became Americas social conscience 18. Slavery was legal 19 Voting was done by white men 20 Women identified with slaves legally ANSWERS TO SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES C 1 Property was owned by white males A 2 nativists C 11 Worked during day light hours in terrible conditions with no rights

A 3 little pay C 12 Rivers were used to transport goods, mail, and news A 4 Communication was strong with more telegraph lines and rail lines A 13 Abolitionists organized the Underground Railroad B 5 Economy was based on cotton growing E 14 Stowes catalyst for social change B 6 yeomanry C 15 Belonged to the US

A 7 Economy was based on supplying cotton for manufacturing cloth C 16 Slavery was a right A 8 Immigrants made up the labor force C 9 steamboats decrease travel time A 10 Feared African Americans would take jobs E 17 Became Americas social conscience B 18. Slavery was legal C 19 Voting was done by white men C 20 Women identified with slaves legally

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