Chapter 15 Acids and Bases

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases

Lecture Presentation Unit 9 AcidBase Equilibria Day 3 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT Warm Up

Name as many strong acids as you can. Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Agenda Finish: Lecture Set Up: Lab Notebook Practice: Acids and Bases Due Friday: Lab Notebook Set Up (Acid and Base Titration)

Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following is not a weak base? a. NH3 b. NH2OH c. F d. OH Acids and Bases

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following is not a weak base? a. NH3 b. NH2OH c. F d. OH Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. AcidBase Properties of Salts

Many ions react with water to create H+ or OH. The reaction with water is often called ____________________. To determine whether a salt is an acid or a base, you need to look at the ___________________. The cation can be ________________. The anion can be Acids _______________________. and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

AcidBase Properties of Salts Many ions react with water to create H+ or OH. The reaction with water is often called hydrolysis. To determine whether a salt is an acid or a base, you need to look at the cation and anion separately. The cation can be acidic or neutral. The anion can be acidic, basic, or Acids neutral. and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Anions Anions of strong acids are neutral. For example, _______________________ _______________________. Anions of weak acids are conjugate bases, so they create OH in water; e.g., _________________________ Protonated anions from polyprotic acids can be acids or bases: If Ka > Kb, the anion will be acidic; if Kb > Ka, the anion Acids will be basic. and

Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Anions Anions of strong acids are neutral. For example, Cl will not react with water, so OH cant be formed. Anions of weak acids are conjugate bases, so they create OH in water; e.g., C2H3O2 + H2O HC HC2H3O2 + OH Protonated anions from polyprotic acids can be acids or bases: If Ka > Kb, the

anion will be acidic; if Kb > Ka, the anion Acids will be basic. and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Cations Group I or Group II ___________________ ____________________________ Polyatomic cations are typically the conjugate acids of a _______________; e.g., NH4+.

Transition and post-transition metal cations are acidic. Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Cations Group I or Group II (Ca2+, Sr2+, or Ba2+) metal cations are neutral. Polyatomic cations are typically the conjugate acids of a weak base; e.g., NH4+. Transition and post-transition metal cations are acidic.

Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Hydrated Cations Transition and post-transition metals form hydrated ____________. The water attached to the metal is more acidic than free water molecules, making the hydrated ions _________.

Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Hydrated Cations Transition and post-transition metals form hydrated cations. The water attached to the metal is more acidic than free water molecules, making the hydrated ions acidic. Acids

and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary: Salt Solutions Acidic, Basic, or Neutral? 1) Group I/II metal cation with anion of a _____________________ 2) Group I/II metal cation with anion of a weak acid: ________________________ 3) Transition/Post-transition metal cation or polyatomic cation with anion of a strong acid: acidic ____________________________ 4) Transition/Post-transition metal cation or

polyatomic cation with anion of a weak acid: compare Ka and Kb; whichever is greater Acids and dictates what the salt is. Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary: Salt Solutions Acidic, Basic, or Neutral? 1) Group I/II metal cation with anion of a strong acid: neutral 2) Group I/II metal cation with anion of a weak

acid: basic (like the anion) 3) Transition/Post-transition metal cation or polyatomic cation with anion of a strong acid: acidic (like the cation) 4) Transition/Post-transition metal cation or polyatomic cation with anion of a weak acid: compare Ka and Kb; whichever is greater Acids and dictates what the salt is. Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Factors that Affect Acid Strength 1) HA bond must be polarized with + on the H atom and on the A atom 2) ________________: Weaker bonds can be broken more easily, making the acid stronger. 3) Stability of A : More stable anion means _____________. Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Factors that Affect Acid Strength 1) HA bond must be polarized with + on the H atom and on the A atom 2) Bond strength: Weaker bonds can be broken more easily, making the acid stronger. 3) Stability of A : More stable anion means stronger acid. Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Binary Acids Binary acids consist of H and ______________. Within a group, HA bond strength is generally the most important factor. Within a period, bond polarity is the most important factor to determine ___________. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Acids

and Bases Binary Acids Binary acids consist of H and one other element. Within a group, HA bond strength is generally the most important factor. Within a period, bond polarity is the most important factor to determine acid strength.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Acids and Bases Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following correctly lists the acids in order of decreasing strength?

a. HClO2 > HClO > HBrO > HIO b. HClO > HBrO > HIO > HClO2 c. HIO > HBrO > HClO > HClO2 d. HClO2 > HIO > HBrO > HClO 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Acids and Bases Which of the following correctly lists the acids in order of decreasing strength? a. HClO2 > HClO > HBrO > HIO

b. HClO > HBrO > HIO > HClO2 c. HIO > HBrO > HClO > HClO2 d. HClO2 > HIO > HBrO > HClO 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Acids and Bases Oxyacids Oxyacids consist of H, O, and one other _________. Generally, as the

_______________ of the nonmetal increases, the acidity increases for acids with the same structure. Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Oxyacids Oxyacids consist of H, O, and one

other nonmetal. Generally, as the electronegativity of the nonmetal increases, the acidity increases for acids with the same structure. Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Oxyacids with Same

Other Element If an element can form more than one oxyacid, the oxyacid with more O atoms is more acidic; e.g., sulfuric acid versus sulfurous acid. Another way of saying it: If the oxidation number ____________, the acidity ____________. Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Oxyacids with Same Other Element

If an element can form more than one oxyacid, the oxyacid with more O atoms is more acidic; e.g., sulfuric acid versus sulfurous acid. Another way of saying it: If the oxidation number increases, the acidity increases. Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic acids are organic acids containing the ______________.

Factors contributing to their acidic behavior: Other O attached to C draws electron density from OH bond, _______________. Its conjugate base (carboxylate anion) has _________________ forms to stabilize the anion. Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic acids are organic acids

containing the COOH group. Factors contributing to their acidic behavior: Other O attached to C draws electron density from OH bond, increasing polarity. Its conjugate base (carboxylate anion) has resonance forms to stabilize the anion. Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Lewis Acid/Base Chemistry Lewis acids are ________________.

Lewis bases are ________________. All BrnstedLowry acids and bases are also called Lewis acids and bases. There are compounds which do not meet the BrnstedLowry definition which meet the Lewis definition. Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Lewis Acid/Base Chemistry Lewis acids are electron pair acceptors. Lewis bases are electron pair donors.

All BrnstedLowry acids and bases are also called Lewis acids and bases. There are compounds which do not meet the BrnstedLowry definition which meet the Lewis definition. Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparing Ammonias Reaction with H+ and BF3 Acids

and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Aqueous metal ions behave as Lewis acids because they a. can readily accept electrons in their vacant d orbitals. b. can readily donate electron pairs from their outermost p orbitals. c. attract electrons from the water molecules they are dissolved in. d. are attracted to the electronegative oxygen atoms in the solvent.

Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Aqueous metal ions behave as Lewis acids because they a. can readily accept electrons in their vacant d orbitals. b. can readily donate electron pairs from their outermost p orbitals. c. attract electrons from the water molecules they are dissolved in. d. are attracted to the electronegative oxygen

atoms in the solvent. Acids and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Acid and Base Titration Lab SET UP: Lab Notebook COMPLETE: Pre-Lab Assignment TIME: Until End of Class WHEN DONE: Complete Book Assignment, WebAssign, or Guided Inquiry Assignments Acids

and Bases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

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