Chapter 14 Two Societies at War 1861-1865 Secession and Military Stalemate, 1861-1862 The Secession Crisis The Union collapsed first in South Carolina, the home of John Calhoun, nullification, and southern rights. Secession December 20, 1860. The Lower South Secedes Southerners organized mobs to attack local Union supporters. In early 1861 other states joined SC: Confederate States of America; Jefferson Davis Less support in four states of Middle South (VA, NC, TN, AK) Why? White opinion especially divided in four border states (MD, DE, KY, MO) President Buchanans timidity prompted SC government to demand the surrender of Fort
Sumter and cut off its supplies. The Crittenden Compromise President Buchanans alternative to send the navy to escort a supply ship to Fort Sumter. 1. 2. Protect slavery from federal interference Extension of Missouri Compromise's line to CA Second proposal rejected. Why? Lincoln promised to safeguard slavery and prevent its expansion in inaugural address.
Hold, occupy, and posses federal property in seceded states Military force if necessary The Upper South Chooses Sides The war begins: Lincoln dispatched an unarmed ship to resupply Fort Sumter. Effect: Eight middle and border states 3/4th industrial production Over half of food production Best military leaders (Colonel Robert E. Lee, VA)
KY bordered Ohio River MD bordered capital on 3 sides New Confederate states: Union states: West Virginia broke away from VA (1863) Setting War Objectives and Devising Strategies Jefferson Davis compared the Confederacy to Patriots of 1776. How? Lincoln insisted on aggressive military campaign to restore the Union. Toward Total War
The Civil War resembled total war that would come in the 20th century. Union centralized vs. Confederate (suspicious of central rule) Mobilizing Armies and Civilians Both armies had eager young volunteers South: strong military tradition, culture of duty and honor, more trained officers The Military Draft 1862 after Shiloh, the Confederates imposed the first legal American draft. 18-35/40 years old Existing soldiers draftees- Two draft loopholes
1. 2. Confederate constitution vested sovereignty in individual states Effect- Confederate congress overrode state judges authority to free conscripted men on the argument of habeas corpus The Union was more aggressive toward sympathizers.
Suspended habeas corpus Imprisoning 15,000 Prevented acquittals by sympathetic local judges Militia Act of 1862 Bounties Substitutes or pay Immigrant dissent Enrollment Act of 1863 Germans and Irish refused to serve. Why?
New York City Riot 1863 German and Irish attacked: police, Republicans, and African Americans Burned: homes, draft offices, black orphanages Union troops killed over a hundred rioters Medical services U.S. Sanitary Commission
Recruit battlefield nurses for Union Army 250,000 Union soldiers died from infections Confederate conditions were worse Death created new industries and cultural rituals Women in Wartime Wage earning work force Nurses, clerks, factory operatives
Dorothea Dix (see Chapter 11) Confederate postal service Spies, scouts, soldiers Clara Barton (Union)- Mobilizing Resources Union had greater resources Population, transportation, industrial output Confederate was substantial (not weak) Richmond manufacturing and gun manufacturing Rifles purchased from England Slaves King Cotton exports Republican Economic and Fiscal Policies
Neo-mercantalist program of government economics. Far surpassed Henry Clays American System (1816) High protective tariff Homestead Act Nationally financed transportation system Increased tariffs (20%); bonds (65%); print money (greenbacks 10%) The South Resorts to Coercion and Inflation The Confederacy abandoned its states rights philosophy to meet economic demand. 10% taxes; 30% loans, 60% printing money High inflation led to starvation and theft Had to resort to seizing citizens property The Turning Point: 1863
Emancipation Activists justified black emancipation on military grounds Contrabands Congress passed the Confiscation Act (1861) Washington D.C. slavery ends (1862) Fugitive slave law ends The Emancipation Proclamation (1863) Lincoln linked black freedom with the preservation of the Union Rebel states could preserve slavery by renouncing secession Slavery continued in border states What was immediate reaction? Vicksburg and Gettysburg Union victories at Vicksburg (MI) and Gettysburg (PA) marked a major turning
point in the war. Why? The British stopped selling weapons to the Confederacy King Cotton vs. King Wheat The Union Victorious, 1864-1865 Soldiers and Strategy Two developments allowed the Union to prosecute the war vigorously: The Impact of Black Troops Impact of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry 200,000 Segregated, discrimination Capable Generals Take Command General Ulysses S. Grants strategy Political Effect:
The Election of 1864 and Shermans March The National Union Party vs. the Peace Democrats Republican goals: New name to attract Democrats and border states Andrew Johnson (running mate) Peace Democrats cessation of hostilities; negotiated a peace settlement The Fall of Atlanta and Lincolns Victory National Union Party accused Peace Democrats of being copperheads Lincoln wins election Emancipation in the south: 13th Amendment
William Sherman: Hard War Warrior Shermans march in Atlanta Field Order No. 15 March in Columbia, SC The Confederate Collapse Rising resentment among poor whites By 1865, 100,000 deserters Black participation? General Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House in VA Farms and plantations ruined and neglected 260,000 Confederate soldiers 360,000 Union soldiers
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