Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Preparing and Handling Sterile Products and Hazardous Drugs Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 1 Preparing Intravenous Products IV route of administration can be used to

Reach therapeutic drug serum levels Guarantee that a drug is administered Administer drugs requiring high tissue levels Administer drugs with unreliable GI absorption Provide nutrition for patients who cannot have anything by mouth Treat patients who are unconscious or uncooperative Rapidly correct fluid or electrolyte problems

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 2 Preparing Intravenous Products IV fluids and medications can be administered by Immediate bolus (IV push IVP) Slow infusion over minutes or hours

They are injected directly into the bloodstream and therefore must be Sterile Free of particulate matter Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 3 Terms to Remember IV push (IVP) the rapid injection of a medication in a syringe into an IV line or catheter in the patient's arm; also called bolus injection

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 4 Preparing Intravenous Products Characteristics of IV products IV solutions Aseptic technique Preparing a label for an IV admixture Final inspection and delivery to the patient care unit

CSP returns Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 5 Characteristics of IV Products

IV preparations are solutions in which ingredients are dissolved or emulsified. Most IV preparations are based on a sterile water medium. Some preparations may be oleaginous (oily), such as a fat emulsion for supplying extra calories. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 6 Characteristics of IV

Products IV preparations must have chemical properties that do not damage or alter blood vessels or blood cells. IV preparations should generally be isotonic same number of particles in solution per unit volume as blood iso-osmotic the same osmotic pressure as blood (pressure required to maintain equilibrium) Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 7

Terms to Remember osmotic pressure the pressure required to maintain an equilibrium, with no net movement of solvent osmolarity a measure of the milliosmoles of solute per liter of solution (mOsm/L); for example, the osmolarity of blood is 285 mOsm/L; often referred to as tonicity for IV solutions

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 8 Characteristics of IV Products Osmolarity (or tonicity) is a measure of the milliosmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolarity of blood is about 285 mOsm/L. Isotonic solution has the same osmolarity

as blood (e.g., 0.9% normal saline). Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 9 Characteristics of IV Products Hypertonic solution has a greater osmolarity than blood (e.g., 50% dextrose or 3% sodium chloride): Must be administered slowly and

cautiously Must be administered in a large vein to be sufficiently diluted by blood Hypotonic solution has a lower osmolarity than blood (e.g., 0.45% normal saline). Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 10 Terms to Remember isotonic solution

a parenteral solution with an equal number of particles as blood cells (285 mOsm/L); 0.9% normal saline is isotonic Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 11 Terms to Remember hypertonic solution a parenteral solution with a greater number of particles than the number of particles found in blood (greater than

285 mOsm/L); also called hyperosmolar, as in a TPN solution Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 12 Terms to Remember hypotonic solution a parenteral solution with a fewer number of particles than the number of particles found in blood (less than 285 mOsm/L); also called hypoosmolar

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13 Characteristics of IV Products The pH value is the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution: pH value less than 7 = acidic pH value greater than 7 = alkaline pH value of 7 = neutral

Blood plasma is slightly alkaline (pH of 7.4). IV solutions should have a pH that is neutral so as not to change the pH of the blood. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 14 Terms to Remember pH value the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution; less than 7 is acidic and more than 7 is alkaline; the pH of blood is 7.4

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 15 Characteristics of IV Products Stability of IV solutions under various storage conditions must be considered. Many IV medications must be refrigerated or frozen. Some must be covered with an

amber-colored bag to protect the drug from exposure to light. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 16 IV Solutions Many IV solutions are available in plastic bags and in various volumes. Most common vehicles for IV infusions are Dextrose in water Normal saline Dextrose in saline solution

Pharmacy technician should be aware of abbreviations used for these solutions (see Table 11.1). Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 17 IV Solutions Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

18 IV Solutions Two main types of IV solutions Small-volume parenteral (SVP) Usually less than 250 mL Typically used for delivering medications at a controlled infusion rate Can be piggybacked onto a running IV Large-volume parenteral (LVP) Available in 250 mL, 500 mL, and 1000 mL sizes Used to replenish fluids or to provide drugs,

electrolytes, or nutrients Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 19 Terms to Remember small-volume parenteral (SVP) an IV fluid of 250 mL or less commonly used for infusion of drugs; with medication, also called an IV piggyback IV piggyback (IVPB) a small-volume IV infusion (50 mL, 100

mL, 250 mL) containing medications Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 20 Terms to Remember large-volume parenteral (LVP) an IV fluid of more than 250 mL that may contain drugs, nutrients, or electrolytes Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

21 IV Solutions A special type of IV admixture is total parenteral nutrition (TPN). A TPN provides nutrition for patients who can have nothing by mouth (NPO). A TPN often contains more than 50 components, including

Protein and amino acids Carbohydrates Electrolytes, vitamins, and minerals Medication Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 22 IV Solutions TPN solutions are often prepared using an automated compounding device (ACD).

ACDs handle multiple ingredients and reduce medication errors and contamination. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 23 Terms to Remember automated compounding device (ACD)

a programmable, automated device to make complex IV preparations such as TPNs Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 24 IV Solutions TPN administration requires a central venous catheter (CVC). It also requires a large vein due to Hypertonicity

Large volume of fluid (usually 2000 mL/day) Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 25 Terms to Remember central venous catheter (CVC) a catheter placed into a large vein deep into the body; also called a central line Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

26 IV Solutions Many antibiotic sterile preparations are available premixed and frozen: Minimizes preparation time Maximizes expiration dating When the medication order is received, the product is thawed: At room temperature In a microwave

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 27 IV Solutions Closed system transfer devices (CSTD) provide both the vial of medication and the specified IV solution: Can be prepared and attached aseptically at the patients bedside Use of a syringe and needle to

reconstitute the dosage not required CSTDs are available only for selected products usually antibiotics. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 28 Terms to Remember closed system transfer device (CSTD) a needleless delivery system by which medications are aseptically activated and added to an IV minibag at patients

bedside Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 29 IV Solutions Pharmacy technician is responsible for assembling the CSTD with proper labeling and expiration dating. CSTDs are more efficient: Doses are premeasured for rapid reconstitution.

There is no need for freezing, thawing, or refrigeration. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 30 IV Solutions Other advantages of CSTDs Admixing errors are minimized. Doses are standardized. Labeling and barcoding is enhanced. Contamination is minimized.

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 31 Aseptic Technique Aseptic technique is used to handle sterile preparations and devices so as to avoid introducing disease-causing microorganisms. Proper technique is an essential skill for the pharmacy technician. Pharmacy technicians prepare CSPs on a laminar airflow workbench

(LAFW). Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 32 Terms to Remember aseptic technique the manipulation of sterile products and devices in such a way as to avoid disease-causing organisms Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

33 Aseptic Technique Safety Note Wear appropriate sterile gear when working in the pharmacy clean room. This includes shoe covers, face mask, full head covering, scrubs or gown with back closure, and gloves. Eye protection should be used if preparing hazardous drugs.

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 34 Aseptic Technique In preparing CSPs, the pharmacy technician must often transfer medication from vials to IV bags. The rubber stopper on the vial must be cleaned with 70% isopropyl alcohol. Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

35 Aseptic Technique Needle tip must not be touched. Needle must be inserted into the vial properly to avoid coring (see Table 11.3). Beyond-use dating on the vial must be checked carefully. Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

36 Terms to Remember coring the act of introducing a small chunk of the rubber closure into the solution while removing medication from a vial Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 37

Aseptic Technique Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 38 Terms to Remember diluent a sterile fluid added to a powder to reconstitute, dilute, or dissolve a medication Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

39 Aseptic Technique Some medications come in glass ampules: Single dose No preservatives Any fluid in the top of the ampule must be moved to the bottom: Quickly swirl, invert, and return the ampule to the upright position.

Tap the top of the ampule. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 40 Terms to Remember ampule a single-dose-only drug container; contains no preservative Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 41

Aseptic Technique Ampule neck must be cleaned with alcohol. A quick motion is used to snap off the top. A needle with a filter should be used to withdraw medication (to screen out any particles). Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

42 Preparing a Label for an IV Admixture When making an IV admixture, the pharmacy technician must also prepare a medication label containing Patient name, identification number, and room number Fluid and amount Drug name and strength Infusion period and flow rate Beyond-use dating or expiration date and time

Any additional required information Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 43 Final Inspection and Delivery to the Patient Care Unit All materials used to make a CSP must be inspected by the pharmacist. Inspection should include Accuracy in identification and amount of ingredients

Aseptic mixing and sterilization Packaging and labeling Physical appearance Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 44 CSP Returns CSPs returned from the patient care unit can be redispensed only if the pharmacist or pharmacy technician is assured that the preparation remained

Sterile Chemically stable Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 45 Equipment Used in IV Drug Preparation A wide variety of sterile devices are used to prepare and administer IV medications. Most are plastic and disposable.

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 46 Terms to Remember catheter a device inserted into a vein for direct access to the blood vascular system Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 47

Equipment Used in IV Drug Preparation Syringes and needles IV sets Filters Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 48 Syringes and Needles Syringes can be made of glass or

plastic. Glass syringes are more expensive and are used mainly with medications that may be absorbed by plastic. Plastic syringes are less expensive and disposable, and they come in sterile packaging. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 49 Syringes and Needles The plunger and the tip of the syringe

are sterile and should not be touched. For greatest accuracy, use the smallest syringe that is able to hold the desired amount of solution. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 50 Syringes and Needles Safety Note Remember that the plunger and the

tip of the syringe are sterile and must not be touched. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 51 Syringes and Needles Safety Note After use, needles must be discarded in a designated sharps container.

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 52 Syringes and Needles Needles used to prepare solutions consist of two parts: Cannula (shaft) Hub (the part that attaches to the syringe) Needles are made of stainless steel or aluminum:

Range in length from inch to 6 inches Range in width from 31 gauge (smallest) to 13 gauge (biggest) Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 53 IV Sets A sterile, nonpyrogenic disposable device used to deliver IV fluids and medications to patients Pharmacy personnel need a thorough understanding of IV sets in order to

Select set optimal to prevent drug or fluid incompatibilities Calculate dosages and drip rates in emergency situations Check and change IV lines Provide in-service training to nurses Transfer fluids from container to container Prime tubing for medication administration Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 54 Terms to Remember

IV administration set a sterile, pyrogen-free disposable device used to deliver IV fluids to patients Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 55 Terms to Remember nonpyrogenic the state of being free from microorganisms; a description of a packaged IV set

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 56 IV Sets Most of the length of IV tubing and IV bags is molded from PVC. Some sets are made from other materials to accommodate solutions and medications that are absorbed by PVC: Nitroglycerin

Fat emulsions IV lines may need to be primed, or flushed with fluid, to remove particles and displace air. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 57 Terms to Remember priming the act of flushing out the small particles in the tubings interior lumen prior to

medication administration and letting fluid run through the tubing so that all of the air is flushed out Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 58 IV Sets Safety Note Do not use PVC IV sets for nitroglycerin or fat emulsions.

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 59 IV Sets Basic components Spike to pierce the rubber stopper on the IV container Drip chamber to trap air and allow viewing of the drops per minute Control clamp to adjust or stop the flow Flexible tubing to deliver the fluid

Adapter to attach a needle or catheter Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 60 IV Sets Other components Y-site resealable port for adding medication to the IV Vent to allow filtered air to enter the bag as fluid flows out Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

61 Terms to Remember Y-site a rigid piece of plastic with one arm terminating in a resealable port that is used for adding medication to the IV spike the sharp plastic end of IV tubing that is attached to an IV bag of fluid

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 62 IV Sets Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 63 IV Sets Sets are identified by drop set the number of drops it takes to

make 1 mL. Common drop sets are 10, 15, 20, and 60 (gtt/mL). Nurse administering the IV counts drops and adjusts as necessary. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 64 Terms to Remember drop set the calibration in drops per milliliter on

IV sets Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 65 IV Sets Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 66 IV Sets

Clamps are used to adjust or shut down the flow. Three types of clamps are common: Slide clamp used primarily for shutting off flow Screw clamp thumbscrew can be tightened or loosened to adjust flow Roller clamp can be rolled up or down IV tubing to compress it and adjust flow Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 67

IV Sets Two factors affect clamp accuracy: creep and cold flow. Creep is the tendency of PVC tubing to return to its previous shape or position; tubing can return to its original state when clamped or unclamped. Cold flow is the tendency of some clamps to slowly return to a more open position with increased fluid flow. Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

68 Terms to Remember creep the tendency of a clamp on an IV administration set to return to its previous position cold flow the tendency of a clamp on an IV administration set to return slowly to a more open position, with an increase in fluid flow

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 69 Filters Included in many IV sets Used to remove contaminants such as Glass Paint Fibers Rubber cores Bacteria

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 70 Terms to Remember filter a device used to remove contaminants such as glass, paint, fibers, rubber cores, and bacteria from IV fluids Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 71

Filters Final filtration should protect patient from Particulate matter Bacteria Air emboli Phlebitis

Common filter sizes 5.0 microns removes large particulate matter 0.45 microns used in in-line IV filters 0.22 microns removes bacteria and produces a sterile solution Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 72 Calculations in the Hospital Pharmacy IV administration flow rates Electrolytes

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 73 IV Administration Flow Rates The pharmacy technician preparing sterile IV products should know how to calculate IV flow rates. IV flow rates are expressed as milliliters per hour or as drops per minute. Drops per minute is calculated as

follows: x gtt/minute = [(volume of fluid delivery time in hours) x (drop rate)] 60 minutes/hour Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 74 IV Administration Flow Rates Safety Note Always carefully check and doublecheck all calculations. Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

75 Electrolytes Many IV fluids contain electrolytes (dissolved mineral salts). Electrolyte solutions are measured in standard metric units and also in milliequivalents (mEq), which are related to molecular weight. To add a milliequivalent amount of electrolyte solution, set up a proportion using known and unknown ratios and solve

using the ratio-proportion method. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 76 Terms to Remember electrolyte a dissolved mineral salt, commonly found in IV fluids Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 77

Hazardous Agents Pharmacy personnel often come into contact with hazardous agents, such as cytotoxic drugs used in Cancer chemotherapy Antiviral treatment for HIV patients Biological hormones Bioengineered drugs Radioactive pharmaceuticals Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 78

Terms to Remember cytotoxic drug a hazardous drug that must be handled and prepared with extra precaution; can be a drug used in cancer chemotherapy, an antiviral drug for a patient with HIV, a biological hormone, a bioengineered drug, or a radioactive pharmaceutical Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 79

Hazardous Agents Risks of exposures to hazardous agents Receipt and storage of hazardous agents Protective clothing Handling and preparation of hazardous agents Hazardous agent spills Procedures in case of exposure

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 80 Risks of Exposures to Hazardous Agents Routes of exposure to hazardous agents include Trauma (e.g., accidental needle sticks) Inhalation Direct skin contact Ingestion

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 81 Risks of Exposures to Hazardous Agents Exposure to hazardous agents can cause acute, chronic, and/or long-term health risks. Acute risks may be from contact resulting in skin rashes, allergic reactions, or hair loss.

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 82 Risks of Exposures to Hazardous Agents Chronic exposure can result in infertility, spontaneous abortions, low-birth-weight infants, or congenital malformations. Long-term risks can include higher risk for certain cancers.

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 83 Risks of Exposures to Hazardous Agents Special precautions and notifications should occur with particular pharmacy personnel: Women of child-bearing age Mothers who are breast-feeding Those trying to conceive

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 84 Receipt and Storage of Hazardous Agents Pharmacy technician must wear gloves when working with hazardous agents (includes receiving, stocking, inventorying, disposing and preparing). Hazardous drugs should be delivered directly to the storage area and

inventoried. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 85 Receipt and Storage of Hazardous Agents Stock of hazardous drugs should be physically separated from other medications. Storage areas for hazardous drugs should have brightly colored warning labels.

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 86 Protective Clothing Working with cytotoxic drugs requires additional protective clothing: Disposable gown with cuffed sleeves Hair and shoe covers Eye protection and mask

Double latex gloves Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 87 Protective Clothing Gloved hands should be washed to remove powder particles. Gloves should be Changed every 20 to 30 minutes of continuous use Turned inside out as they are removed

Disposed of in designated hazardous waste containers Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 88 Handling and Preparation of Hazardous Agents A closed system transfer device (CSTD) is the safest way to deliver hazardous agents. Hazardous agents are not always available in a CSTD due to stability or

other concerns. The pharmacy technician must prepare these agents manually. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 89 Handling and Preparation of Hazardous Agents Withdrawing a cytotoxic drug from a vial requires a different technique than is used for nonhazardous CSPs. Creating too much pressure inside the

vial can cause the toxic drug to aspirate. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 90 Handling and Preparation of Hazardous Agents The pharmacy technician should introduce an amount of air equal to only about 75% of the solution volume.

A chemo venting pin can also be used to equalize the air pressure in the vial. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 91 Terms to Remember chemo venting pin a device used to equalize pressure in the preparation of hazardous drugs Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

92 Handling and Preparation of Hazardous Agents Safety Note With hazardous drugs, inject a volume of air that is no more than 75% of the amount of drug to be withdrawn. Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

93 Handling and Preparation of Hazardous Agents Preparation of IV sets containing cytotoxic drugs should done under a vertical laminar airflow workbench (LAFW). Priming of the IV tubing should also be done under the vertical LAFW. Garb used in preparation and administration should be disposed of in a hazardous waste container.

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 94 Handling and Preparation of Hazardous Agents Special care should be taken in handling hazardous oral medications. Workers should wear gloves, gown, and a respirator. Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

95 Handling and Preparation of Hazardous Agents Equipment should be immediately cleaned and rinsed. Automated counting and packaging machines should not be used. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 96

Hazardous Agent Spills The pharmacy technician must know the proper procedure in case of a hazardous agent spill. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 97 Hazardous Agent Spills All spills must be cleaned up immediately with a commercial spill kit or one assembled

with the following: Nonabsorbent gown and gloves (2 pairs) Respirator mask and goggles Absorbent towels and spill control pillows Scoop and brush Plastic disposal bags labeled Chemo Waste

Chemo hazard labels and a sign reading CAUTION: Chemo Spill Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 98 Procedures in Case of Exposure All hazardous materials have a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) with instructions on how to handle an exposure. Exposed skin should be flooded with water immediately and cleaned with soap and

water. Eyes should be flushed with large amounts of water (or use an eye flush kit). Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 99 Procedures in Case of Exposure After exposure, contaminated garments should be removed and disposed of properly.

The exposed person should be escorted to the employee health or emergency room. Any exposure should be reported to a supervisor, and an incident report should be filled out. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 100 Quality Assurance All hospital pharmacies must have a quality assurance (QA) plan.

QA programs are not to assign blame, but rather are to fix systems. Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 101 Terms to Remember quality assurance (QA) program a feedback system to improve care by identifying and correcting the cause of a medication error or improper technique

Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 102 Quality Assurance Pharmacy should have a procedure for environmental monitoring of clean room, LAFW, buffer area, and ante area. Sampling of air, work surfaces, and glove tips should be done routinely. Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

103 Quality Assurance All hospital personnel must have training in dealing with hazardous agents. Pharmacy personnel must be trained in aseptic technique. Training must be documented and repeated yearly. Paradigm Publishing, Inc.


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