Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Chapter 9 Subprograms 1-1 Chapter 9 Topics Introduction Fundamentals of Subprograms Design Issues for Subprograms Local Referencing Environments Parameter-Passing Methods Parameters That Are Subprogram Names Overloaded Subprograms Generic Subprograms Design Issues for Functions User-Defined Overloaded Operators Coroutines

1-2 Introduction Two fundamental abstraction facilities Process abstraction Emphasized from early days Data abstraction Emphasized in the1980s 1-3 General Subprogram Characteristics (in our discussion) Each subprogram has a single entry point The calling program is suspended during

execution of the called subprogram Control always returns to the caller when the called subprograms execution terminates 1-4 Basic Definitions A subprogram definition describes the interface to and the actions of the subprogram abstraction A subprogram call is an explicit request that the subprogram be executed A subprogram header is the first part of the definition, including the name, the kind of subprogram, and the formal parameters

The parameter profile of a subprogram is the number, order, and types of its parameters The protocol (aka signature) is a subprograms parameter profile and, if it is a function, its return type 1-5 Basic Definitions (continued) Function declarations in C and C++ are often called prototypes No special word appears in the header of a subprogram in languages other than Fortran Pascal, and Ada to specify its kind. A subprogram declaration provides the protocol, but not the body, of the subprogram A formal parameter is a dummy variable listed

in the subprogram header and used in the subprogram An actual parameter represents a value or address used in the subprogram call statement 1-6 Actual/Formal Parameter Correspondence Positional Parameters The binding of actual parameters to formal parameters is by position: the first actual parameter is bound to the first formal parameter and so forth Safe and effective Keyword Parameters The name of the formal parameter to which an actual parameter is to be bound is specified with the actual

parameter Advantage: Parameters can appear in any order, thereby avoiding parameter correspondence errors Disadvantage: User must know the formal parameters names Formal Parameter Default Values In certain languages (e.g., C++, Python, Ruby, Ada, PHP), formal parameters can have default values (if no actual parameter is passed) In C++, default parameters must appear last because parameters are positionally associated Variable numbers of parameters

C# methods can accept a variable number of parameters as long as they are of the same typethe corresponding formal parameter is an array preceded by params In Ruby, the actual parameters are sent as elements of a hash literal and the corresponding formal parameter is preceded by an asterisk. In Python, the actual is a list of values and the corresponding formal parameter is a name with an asterisk In Lua, a variable number of parameters is represented as a formal parameter with three periods; they are accessed with a for statement or with a multiple assignment from the three periods Procedures and Functions There are two categories of subprograms Procedures are collection of statements that define parameterized computations. May have

side effects or modify the actual parameters. Functions structurally resemble procedures but are semantically modeled on mathematical functions They are expected to produce no side effects In practice, program functions have side effects 1-9 Design Issues for Subprograms What parameter passing methods are 1-10 provided? Are parameter types checked (actual vs.

formal)? Are local variables static or dynamic? Can subprogram definitions appear in other subprogram definitions (nested)? Can subprograms be passed as parameters? What is the referencing environment of the passed subprogram? Can subprograms be overloaded? Can subprogram be generic? Local Referencing Environments Local variables can be stack-dynamic Advantages Support for recursion Storage for locals is shared among some subprograms

Disadvantages Allocation/de-allocation, initialization time Indirect addressing Subprograms cannot be history sensitive Local variables can be static More efficient (no indirection) No run-time overhead Cannot support recursion In Lua, only variables with restricted scope are declared! 1-11 Parameter Passing Methods

Ways in which parameters are transmitted to and/or from called subprograms Pass-by-value Pass-by-result Pass-by-value-result Pass-by-reference 1-12 Models of Parameter Passing 1-13 Pass-by-Value (In Mode) The value of the actual parameter is used to

initialize the corresponding formal parameter Normally implemented by copying Can be implemented by transmitting an access path but not recommended (enforcing write protection is not easy) C++ provides a convenient and effective method for enforcing write protection on pass-by-value by access path When copies are used, additional storage is 1-14 required Storage and copy operations can be costly

when data is large Pass-by-Result (Out Mode) When a parameter is passed by result, no value is transmitted to the subprogram; the corresponding formal parameter acts as a local variable; its value is transmitted to callers actual parameter when control is returned to the caller Require extra storage location and copy operation Potential problem: parameter collision sub(p1, p1); (assuming the two formal

parameters have two different names) whichever formal parameter is copied back last will represent the current value of p1 Another problem is that the implementer can 1-15 choose between two different times to Pass-by-Value-Result (inout Mode) A combination of pass-by-value and pass-by-result Sometimes called pass-by-copy Formal parameters have local

storage Disadvantages: Those of pass-by-result Those of pass-by-value 1-16 Pass-by-Reference (Inout Mode) Pass an access path Also called pass-by-sharing Passing process is efficient (no copying and no duplicated storage) Disadvantages Slower accesses (compared to pass- 1-17

by-value) to formal parameters Potentials for un-wanted side effects Un-wanted aliases (access broadened): harmful to reliability and readability Implementing Parameter-Passing Methods In most language parameter communication takes place thru the runtime stack Pass-by-reference are the simplest to implement; only an address is placed in the stack A subtle but fatal error can occur with passby-reference and pass-by-value-result: a formal parameter corresponding to a

constant can mistakenly be changed 1-18 Implementing Parameter-Passing Methods 1-19 Parameter Passing Methods of Major Languages C Pass-by-value Pass-by-reference is achieved by using pointers as parameters C++ A special pointer type called reference type (names start

with &) for pass-by-reference Java All parameters are passed are passed by value Object parameters are passed by reference Ada Three semantics modes of parameter transmission: in, out, in out; in is the default mode In Ada95 all the scalars are passed by copy and all structured parameters are passed by reference. Formal parameters declared out can be assigned but not referenced; those declared in can be referenced but not assigned; in out parameters can be referenced and assigned Parameter Passing Methods of Major Languages (continued) Fortran 95

- Parameters can be declared to be in, out, or inout mode C# - Default method: pass-by-value Pass-by-reference is specified by preceding both a formal parameter and its actual parameter with ref PHP: very similar to C# Perl: all actual parameters are implicitly placed in a predefined array named @_ Python and Ruby use pass-by-assignment (all data values are objects) Type Checking Parameters Considered very important for reliability

Without it, small typos may cause errors not detected by the compiler or the runtime system. FORTRAN 77 and original C: none Pascal, FORTRAN 90, Java, and Ada: it is always required ANSI C and C++: choice is made by the user Prototypes: the formal parameter types are included in the list C# requires the type of ref actual parameter to match exactly the type of its formal parameter (no coercion allowed) Relatively new languages Perl, JavaScript, and 1-22

PHP do not require type checking Design Considerations for Parameter Passing Two important considerations Efficiency One-way or two-way data transfer But the above considerations are in conflict Good programming suggest limited access to variables, which means one-way whenever possible But pass-by-reference is more efficient to pass structures of significant size

1-23 Parameters that are Subprogram Names It is sometimes convenient to pass subprogram names as parameters Issues: 1. Are parameter types checked? 2. What is the correct referencing environment for a subprogram that was sent as a parameter? 1-24 Parameters that are Subprogram

Names: Parameter Type Checking C and C++: functions cannot be passed as parameters but pointers to functions can be passed; parameters can be type checked (the type of a pointer to a function is functions protocol) FORTRAN 95 type checks Later versions of Pascal and Ada does not allow subprogram parameters; a similar alternative is provided via Adas generic facility 1-25 Subprogram Names: Referencing Environment Shallow binding: The environment of the

call statement that enacts the passed subprogram Most natural for dynamic-scoped languages Deep binding: The environment of the definition of the passed subprogram Most natural for static-scoped languages Ad hoc binding: The environment of the call statement that passed the subprogram 1-26 Overloaded Subprograms

An overloaded subprogram is one that has the same name as another subprogram in the same referencing environment Every version of an overloaded subprogram has a unique protocol C++, Java, C#, and Ada include predefined 1-27 overloaded subprograms (i.e. many classes have overloaded constructors) In Ada, the return type of an overloaded function can be used to disambiguate calls

(thus two overloaded functions can have the same parameters) Ada, Java, C++, and C# allow users to write multiple versions of subprograms with the same name There is an ambiguity issue when no methods profile matches the number and types of the Generic Subprograms A generic or polymorphic subprogram takes parameters of different types on different activations Overloaded subprograms provide ad hoc polymorphism (overloaded programs need not behave similarly) A subprogram that takes generic

parameters used in a type expression which describes the type of the parameters of the subprogram provides parametric polymorphism (Generic) 1-28 Parametric Polymorphism in C++ template Type max(Type first, Type second) { return first > second ? first : second; } The above template can be instantiated for type for which operator > is defined any

int max (int first, int second) { return first > second? first : second; } In Ada and C++, a copy must be created at compile time for each different type that is required and the binding of subprogram calls to subprograms is static 1-29 Parametric Polymorphism in Java

1-30 Java generic method differ from the generic sub programing of Ada and C+ +: 1-Generic parameters must be classes and cannot be primitive types. 2- Although Java generic methods can be instantiated any number of times, only one copy of the code is build (called a raw method). Raw method operates on object class and compiler insert a cast to the proper type. 3- In Java, restrictions can be specified on the range of classes that can be Example of a Generic Method

in Java public class MainClass { static boolean isIn(T x, V[] y) { for (int i = 0; i < y.length; i++){ if (x.equals(y[i])){ return true; } } return false; } public static void main(String args[]) { Integer nums[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }; if (isIn(2, nums)){ System.out.println("2 is in nums"); } if (!isIn(7, nums)){ System.out.println("7 is not in nums");

} 2 is in nums 7 is not in nums two is in strs seven is not in strs // Use isIn() on Strings. String strs[] = { "one", "two", "three", "four", "five" }; if (isIn("two", strs)) System.out.println("two is in strs"); if (!isIn("seven", strs)) System.out.println("seven is not in strs"); } 1-31

} Design Issues for Functions 1. Are side effects allowed? Parameters should always be in-mode to reduce side effect (like Ada) 2. What types of return values are allowed? Most imperative languages restrict the return types C allows any type except arrays and functions

C++ is like C but also allows user-defined types (classes) Ada allows any type Java and C# do not have functions but methods can have any type 3. How many values can be returned? 1-32 User-Defined Overloaded Operators Operators can be overloaded in Ada and C++ An Ada example Function *(A,B: in Vec_Type): return Integer is Sum: Integer := 0; begin for Index in Arange loop

Sum := Sum + A(Index) * B(Index) end loop return sum; end *; c = a * b; -- a, b, and c are of type Vec_Type 1-33 Coroutines A coroutine is a subprogram that has multiple entries and controls them itself Also called symmetric control: caller and called coroutines are on a more equal basis A coroutine call is named a resume The first resume of a coroutine is to its beginning,

but subsequent calls enter at the point just after the last executed statement in the coroutine Coroutines repeatedly resume each other, possibly forever Coroutines provide quasi-concurrent execution of program units (the coroutines); their execution is interleaved, but not overlapped 1-34 Coroutines Illustrated: Possible Execution Controls 1-35 Coroutines Illustrated: Possible Execution Controls

1-36 Coroutines Illustrated: Possible Execution Controls with Loops 1-37 Summary A subprogram definition describes the actions represented by the subprogram Subprograms can be either functions or procedures Local variables in subprograms can be stackdynamic or static Three models of parameter passing: in mode, out mode, and inout mode Some languages allow operator overloading

Subprograms can be generic A coroutine is a special subprogram with multiple entries 1-38

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