Chapter 1 - Louisiana Culture

Chapter 1 - Louisiana Culture

Chapter 1 Louisiana Culture Families and Festivals Bell Ringer #8 What is culture? What are some elements of Louisiana culture that make it unique? Section 1: What is culture? The way of life of a group of people Religion, food, music, clothing, language, art, literature, games and sports Religion

Roman Catholic - First European religion in Louisiana was because the French and Spanish influence when they controlled the colony various protestant religions - After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, moved into the territory Jews More recently: Buddhism and Islam What is culture (Contd) Music New Orleans is the birthplace of Jazz Blues based on African American folk music; especially chants of the plantation workers

Rhythms were Memories of the African Culture and made the slaves lives and their work more bearable ( guitar and harmonicas) Later evolved into Rhythm and Blues (horns added and tempo changed) Fais-do-do a Cajun dance; French for go to sleep Zydeco songs sung in French and played on accordion. Rub board used for rhythm Country Music String Bands developed into Bluegrass which evolved into modern day country music Rock N Roll Modern country and blues adapted to become rock and roll Fats Domino and Little Richard From New Orleans Performed in New Orleans

Elvis (before gaining national fame) Jerry Lewis The Beatles Rolling Stones Neville Brothers continue Louisiana's contribution to Rock and Roll Many Rock and Roll Musicians started out singing gospel Music (blends elements of folk music, spirituals hymns, and popular music) Community Brass Bands popular at the turn of the 20th century What is culture (contd) Food

Considered one of the best elements of Louisiana culture Cajun and Creole food of South Louisiana is the most identified with the state Crawfish Fish Fries Louisianas Festivals August-September

Shrimp Festival (Shrimp and Petroleum festival)- Morgan City, St. Mary Parish; blessing of the shrimp fleet combines a religious and social occasion Frog Festival Rayne in Acadia Parish; eat frog legs and watch frog jumping contests in the Frog Capital of the World Zydeco Music festival Plaisance in St. Landry Parish Festival Acadiens Lafayette in Lafayette Parish; celebration of French heritage, crafts, alligator skinning, dancing and music Alligator festival St. Charles Parish; selling hides and meat, try fried alligator or alligator sauce picante Sugar Cane Festival New Iberia in Iberia Parish; one of the States oldest festivals; sweet foods, dancing, music food, carnival rides, boat parade on the Bayou Teche, street parade; cooking contests and livestock shows

Louisianas Festivals (contd) October-November Arts in the Fall Shreveport in Caddo Parish Red River Revel art show/sale, music and food of the region, introduces children to art and artists Oktoberfest- Roberts Cove in Acadia Parish; German bands, food, and singing Tamale Festival - Zwolle (za-WA-lee) in Sabine Parish; recognizes its ties to Spanish and Native American cultures. Highlights special foods that combine these legacies; parade and street dance International Rice Festival- Crowley in Acadia Parish; harvest celebration

Yambilee festival Opelousas in St. Landry Parish; celebrates the locally grown yam Giant Omelet Festival (read legend on Page 11 paragraph 6)- Abbeville in Vermillion Parish; joined the Confrerie (international organization that celebrates French culture) Celebrates French culture and includes the tradition of the Giant omelet (5,000 eggs go into it and chefs add hot sauce for Cajun flavor). Louisiana Pecan Festival - Colfax in Grant Parish; pecans and crafts offer and glimpse of country life in the past Louisiana Festivals (Contd)

December Festival of the Lights Natchitoches, in Natchitoches Parish; riverbank filled with Christmas lights, parade, food, music, fireworks display Bonfires St James Parish, lower Mississippi levee on Christmas Eve January-February Creole Heritage Day Celebration Natchitoches Parish; celebrate creole (French and African American) culture like the making of File and Gumbo March-April St. Patrick's Day- Baton Rouge and New Orleans; Parades, and the wearing of green Strawberry Festival Ponchatoula, Tangipahoa Parish New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival- New Orleans, Orleans Parish; brings more visitors to Louisiana than any other celebration other than Mardi Gras, thousands of musicians of all types of music play for 10 days at the fairgrounds celebrating with food, music, and dancing

May Crawfish Festival Breaux Bridge in St. Martin Parish; more than 100,000 visitors come to this 10,000 population city to eat crawfish and dance to chank-a-chank music. Crawfish Capital of the World Sawmill Days Small town in Sabine Parish, see how a lumber town looked at the turn of the century Fest for All Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish; spotlight local artists and invite participants from other states Jambalaya Festival- Gonzalez, Ascension Parish; determine the states Jambalaya Champion Jambalaya is an example of cultural diffusion ; Spanish and Acadians June-July Peach Festival Lincoln Parish; buy peaches, watch parade, and buy crafts Blueberry festival Mansfield, Desoto Parish; celebration for the community: elements of country life like BBQ, and country music, wood chopping contest Folk life Festival Natchitoches ;established to preserve information about Louisianas cultural elements, indoor event

Louisiana Festivals (Contd) Mardi Gras- Louisianas largest celebration Tradition began in Europe and brought by French explorers 18th Century Parades were described as a group of men ringing cowbells in the streets of New Orleans Today more than half a million people line the streets to watch the more than 50

parades held in the city. Louisiana Festivals (Contd) It is the festive time before the solemnity of Lent (A Christian religious season, 40 days before the crucifixion of Jesus). Lent begins on Ash Wednesday and ends on Good Friday. Mardi Gras is the day before Ash Wednesday and means Fat Tuesday The celebration of Mardi Gras begins on Kings Day, January 6, Also known as the 12 th night. On this night Parties, balls, street dancers and parades fill south Louisiana. The traditional country version of Mardi Gras takes place in Basile, Church Point, Eunice and Mamou

Described as the running the Mardi Gras Masked riders on horseback go from house to house collecting food for the community feast Riders entertain with singing and dancing as they go Participants chase after and catch a live chickens from the farms they visit to become a part of the gumbo. Section 3: Louisianas Cultural regions (pg17) The Louisiana Department of

Culture, Recreation, and Tourism divides the state into 5 cultural regions The regions have similar ethnic heritage, language, religion, food, music, and recreation Sportsman's Paradise (pg18) Northern Louisiana Monroe, West Monroe, Shreveport, Bossier City English, Scottish, or Irish Abundant outdoor activities such as hunting, fishing, waterskiing, power boat racing Region has many lakes, rolling hills, and forests The Crossroads

Central Louisiana Alexandria, Pineville, Winnfield All ethnic groups Farms, weathered barns (symbolize rural roots of the area) Merges the culture of North and South LA Cajun Country Southwestern triangle of LA Houma, Lafayette, Morgan City, Lake Charles French Catholics, English

Protestants Cajun French spoken, oil industry Cajun culture is centered on agriculture, livestock, fishing, and trapping Plantation Country Along Mississippi River Baton Rouge All ethnic groups Plantation homes, Spanish moss, :live Oak trees Greater New Orleans

Eastern LA on the Mississippi River New Orleans All ethnic groups French Quarter, Mardi Gras Combines a unique blend of old European ideas with modern American life Section 4: Louisianas People Louisiana has a great diversity of people. The cultural differences come from the different backgrounds of its citizens Louisianas People Acadians

French Canadians migrated to LA in 18th Century when the English gained control of Acadia (Present day Nova Scotia) and forced the French to leave Acadian farmers made their way to the Bayous and Prairies developing the region of Acadiana Cajun came from the French pronunciation of the word Acadiana meaning people of Acadia 22 parishes form the triangle of Cajun culture Descendants proudly preserve language , customs, food, and music Recognizable outside of Louisiana

Louisianas People African Americans Came to Louisiana several different ways Slaves from west Africa Slaves brought from French colonies of West Indies Free People of Color, descendants consider themselves Creoles African French people born in the colony of Louisiana rather than Europe or Africa St. Landry Parish home of several large Creole

communities Speak French Zydeco Music Louisianas People American Indians Have land and tribal headquarters in several parts of the state Chitimacha, Choctaw, Coushatta, TunicaBiloxi, and Houma are the primary tribes that still remain in Louisiana Louisianas People

Anglos English speaking heritage that developed in the British colonies on the east coast of the US Includes Scots-Irish Migrated to Louisiana and established farms in North Louisianas hill country Culture described as upland South, accent is southern and religion is protestant Plantations along the rivers Known

as lowland south, culture existed along the Mississippi River, Red River and Ouachita River Differences in customs, speech patterns, and religion are still seen between the upland South and Southern cultures Louisianas People Germans Immigrated to Louisiana during the early colonial years Did not retain language but blended into

the dominant French culture Second wave of immigration in 19th century settled in Acadia in Roberts Cove Preserved some German culture like Dec 6 on the feast of St. Nicolas a procession goes from house to house Louisianas People Hispanics Oldest and best preserved culture in Louisiana Islenos- means islanders, descended from the canary islands brought to Louisiana when it was a Spanish colony

Live in St. Bernard Parish when ancestors settled in 18th Century Community is Zwolle traces ancestry to the Spanish colony of Texas 20th Century Cuban community developed in NOLA Most recent have come from Mexico Louisianas People Italians large group in 19th century Became farmers Largest group of descendants outside of

NOLA is Independence, LA (Tangipahoa Parish) Contributed custom of St. Josephs Altar Thank you for the past year Guests are given a dried fava bean (often blessed by a Catholic Priest) for luck Louisianas People Other Ethnic Groups Croatians from off the coast of the Adriatic Sea Developed oyster industry Descendants live in Plaquemine Parish

Filipino Plaquemine Parish; shrimpers Vietnamese- Fishermen along the LA coastline Chinese- came as laborers in 19th Century Some worked on Plantations Others became involved in shrimp drying industry Now share New Years tradition Lion dance is popular in Baton Rouge and NOLA

Czechs- in Rapids Parish, gather annually to share culture with each other and visitors Hungarians- Livingston Parish; small community near Albany, LA Other ethnic groups who contributed: Arabs, Greeks, and Natives of India Louisianas People Families Culture preserved by regions, communities and families Come together to share heritage and pass along traditions of family reunions Relatives gather to share food and memories

Visit the cemetery to honor past generations You and your family contribute by combining past traditions with customs of today

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