Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Sexual Orientations Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. A Continuum of Sexual Orientations Specific sexual orientations include whether an individual: Engages in sexual behavior with men, women, both, or neither Feels sexual desire for men, women, both, or neither Falls in love with men, women, both, or neither

Identifies with a specific sexual orientation Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. A Continuum of Sexual Orientations (contd.) Types of sexual orientations Homosexual: orientation toward same sex Bisexual: orientation toward both same and other sex Heterosexual: orientation toward other sex Asexual: no sexual attraction toward either sex

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Kinseys Continuum of Sexual Orientation Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Sexual Fluidity Variability in same-sex and other-sex attraction and involvement at different times and different situations throughout the life

span Significantly more women have experimented sexually with the same sex Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Asexuality and Bisexuality Asexuality: someone who does not experience sexual attraction Most asexual people have been their whole lives Bisexuality: people who have the capacity for

attraction to more than one sex More women identify as bisexual than men Sometimes judged by heterosexual and homosexual individuals Performative bisexuality Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Homosexuality Common synonym for homosexual is gay Used to describe homosexual men and women, as well as social and political concerns related to homosexual orientation

May also be used as a negative label Acronym LGBTQ: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning Often used in discussions of civil rights for nonheterosexual people Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. What Determines Sexual Orientation? Psychosocial theories Focus on role of life incidences, parenting patterns, or psychological attributes

Theories include: By default myth: unhappy heterosexual experiences cause a person to become homosexual Seduction myth: young people are seduced and turned by older homosexual people Freuds theory: childhood experiences and relationships with parents result in homosexual or heterosexual development Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. What Determines Sexual Orientation? (contd.)

Research into biological factors Genetic factors Identical twin studies Homosexuality and gender nonconformity Variation in research findings between homosexual men and women Causes remain a matter of speculation Implications if biology is destiny May lead to greater acceptance

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Societal Attitudes Regarding Homosexuality Cross-cultural attitudes vary greatly Wide spread acceptance has been revealed Some societies require their members to engage in homosexual activities However, basic human rights violations is common around the world Judeo-Christian attitudes towards sexuality

Conflicting positions Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Societal Attitudes Regarding Homosexuality (contd.) Shift from sin to sickness: early 1900s 1973: American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from list of mental disorders Gay-affirmative therapy: therapy to help homosexual clients cope with negative societal attitudes

Conversion therapy/sexual reorientation therapy: therapy to help homosexual men and women change their sexual orientation Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Homophobia Antihomosexual attitudes Stigmatize and denigrate any behaviors, identities, relationships, and communities that are not heterosexual Irrational fear or loathing of homosexual feelings in oneself

Hate crimes Subject to severer sentences than other crimes Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Homophobia (contd.) Causes of homophobia and hate crimes Lack of acceptance and valuing Traditional gender role stereotypes Extreme manifestation of cultural norms Suppression of homosexual feelings

Increasing acceptance Contact has also increased Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Gay Rights Movement Began in 1969 with Stonewall incident Police raid on gay bar patrons resulted in a riot Homosexual civil rights: general areas Decriminalization of private sexual behavior

Antidiscrimination: employment, military, etc. Legal civil marriage for same-sex couples Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Countries That Allow Gay Marriage Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Public Approval Of Gay Marriage Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Homosexuality and the Media Effects of increasing exposure Greater familiarity and understanding Portrayal of gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals in a more positive light In 2014-2015, the five broadcast networks had 32 regular gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender characters; mainstream cable had approximately 64 LGBT recurring characters Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Coming Out Acknowledging, accepting, and openly expressing ones homosexuality Self-acknowledgement Self-acceptance Disclosure Passing: risks and benefits Telling family Involvement in the gay community

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Homosexual Relationships in Context Lifestyles are as varied as heterosexuals Representing all social classes, occupations, races, religions, and political persuasions Comparison of gay and straight relationships Similar relationship satisfaction Differences in handling disagreements Lesbians have higher partner expectations and more frequency of orgasm

Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Homosexual Relationships in Context (contd.) Differences between gay men and lesbians in sexual attitude and behavior Lesbians are likely to have had far fewer sexual partners and associate emotional closeness with sex more than gay men Family life

Many forms exist in contemporary society Most laws about adoption by homosexual parents are ambiguous Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Summary A number of psychosocial and biological theories have attempted to explain the development of homosexuality Sexual orientation, regardless of where it falls on the continuum, seems to form through a composite of factors unique to each person

Cross-cultural attitudes toward homosexuality range from condemnation to acceptance United States acceptance continues to increase Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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