CHAPTER 1: Computer Systems

CHAPTER 1: Computer Systems

CHAPTER 1: Computers and Systems The Architecture of Computer Hardware, Systems Software & Networking: An Information Technology Approach 5th Edition, Irv Englander John Wiley and Sons 2013 PowerPoint slides authored by Angela Clark, University of South Alabama PowerPoint slides for the 4th edition were authored by Wilson Wong, Bentley University Computing Devices Old and New Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-2

Modern Computing Computing is ubiquitous It is everywhere and anywhere No longer limited to a traditional computer Greater variety of computing platforms exist now Computing is pervasive Embedded in many other types of devices such as appliances and automobiles Users no longer have to understand the details of how they work to operate the device Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-3

Why Study Computer System Architecture? User Understand system capabilities, strengths, and limitations Make better informed decisions Improve communications with information technology professionals Programmer Create efficient application software for specific processing needs Systems Architect or Systems Analyst Specify computer systems and architecture to meet application requirements

Make intelligent decisions about system strategy Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-4 Why Study Computer System Architecture? Networking Professional Design, maintain, support, and manage networks Optimize equipment and network resources Web Services Designer Optimize customer accessibility to Web services Optimize web system configurations Select appropriate data formats, page designs and scripting languages

Design efficient Web pages Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-5 Why Study Computer System Architecture? System Administrator / Manager Install, configure, maintain, and upgrade computer systems Maximize system availability and efficiency Optimize system performance Select cloud services Ensure system security

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-6 Web Browser Application Use Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-7 Input-Process-Output Model (IPO) Input: keyboard, mouse, scanner

Processing: CPU executes the computer program Output: monitor, printer, fax machine Storage: hard drive, optical media, diskettes, magnetic tape Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-8

Simplified IT Computer System Layout Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-9 Computer System Components Hardware Processes data by executing instructions Provides input and output Control input, output, and storage components Software Applications and system software Instructions tell hardware exactly what tasks to perform and

in what order Data Fundamental representation of facts and observations Communications Sharing data and processing among different systems Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-10 Hardware Component Input/Output devices Storage Devices CPU Central Processing Unit ALU: arithmetic/logic unit

CU: control unit Interface unit Memory Short-term storage for CPU calculations Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-11 Typical Personal Computer System Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-12

CPU: Central Processing Unit ALU: arithmetic/logic unit Performs arithmetic and Boolean logical calculations CU: control unit Controls processing of instructions Controls movement of data within the CPU Interface unit Moves instructions and data between the CPU and other hardware components Bus: bundle of wires that carry signals and power between different components Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

1-13 Memory Also known as primary storage, working storage, and RAM (random access memory) Consists of bits, each of which hold a value of either 0 or 1 (8 bits = 1 byte) Holds both instructions and data of a computer program (stored program concept) Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-14 Software Component Applications

Operating System API: application program interface File management I/O Kernel Memory management Resource scheduling Program communication Security

Network Module Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-15 Communication Component Hardware Communication channels Physical connections between computer systems Examples: wire cable, phone lines, fiber optic cable, infrared light, radio waves Interface hardware

Handles communication between the computer and the communication channel Modem or network interface card (NIC) Software Establish connections Control flow of data Directs data to the proper applications for use Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-16

Computer Systems All computer systems, no matter how complex, consists of the following: At least one CPU Memory to hold programs and data I/O devices Long-term storage Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-17

Computer Systems Examples IBM System z10 EC Mainframe Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-18 Virtualization Virtual (American Heritage Dictionary Existing or result in essence or effect though not in actual fact, form or name Created, simulated, or carried on by means of a computer or computer network Computer systems examples

Virtual memory Virtual networks Java Virtual Machine Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-19 Standards Created to ensure universal compatibility of data formats and protocols May be created by committee or may become a de facto standard through popular use Examples:

Computer languages: Java, SQL, C, JavaScript Display standards: Postscript, MPEG-2, JPEG, PNG Character set standards: ASCII, Unicode, EBCDIC Multimedia standards: MPEG-2, MPEG-4, MP3, DVDROM Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-20 Protocols Common ground rules of communication between computers, I/O devices, and many software programs

Examples HTTP: between Web servers and Web browsers TCP/IP: between computers on the Internet and local area networks SATA: between storage devices and computers XML,RSS, SIP: new protocols developed to meet new demands Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-21 Textbook Overview Web site: http://www.wiley.com/college/englander Part 1 (Chapters 1-2) Overview of computer systems

Part 2 (Chapters 3-5) Number systems and data formats Part 3 (Chapters 6-11) Computer architecture and hardware operation Part 4 (Chapters 12-14) Networks and data communications Part 5 (Chapters 15-18) Software component operating systems Part 6 (Supplementary Chapters S1-S4) Digital logic, systems examples, instruction addressing modes, programming tools

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-22 Early History 1642: Blaise Pascal invents a calculating machine 1801: Joseph Marie Jacquard invents a loom that uses punch cards 1800s: Charles Babbage attempts to build an analytical engine (mechanical computer) Augusta Ada Byron develops many of the fundamental concepts of programming George Boole invents Boolean logic Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

1-23 Modern Computer Development 1937: Mark I is built (Aiken, Harvard University, IBM). First electronic computer using relays 1939: Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) is built First fully electronic digital computer; used vacuum tubes 1943-46: ENIAC (Mauchly, Eckert, University of Pennsylvania). First general purpose digital computer 1945: Von Neumann architecture proposed Still the standard for present day computers

1947: Creation of the transistor (Bardeen, Shockley, Brattain, Bell Labs) 1951-2: EDVAC and IAS Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-24 Early Computers Babbages Analytical Engine Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ENIAC

1-25 System Software History Early computers had no operating systems and were single user systems Programs were entered using switches for each bit or by plugging wires into a panel 1953-54: First operating system was built by General Motors Research Laboratories for their IBM 701 computer Other early systems FORTRAN Monitor System (FMS) IBSYS Share Operating System (SOS) Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

1-26 Operating System Development 1963: Master Control Program (MCP) by Burroughs Included many modern OS features 1964: OS/360 by IBM Included batch processing of programs 1962: MIT Project MAC created a time-sharing OS called CTSS Shortly afterwards, MIT, Bell Labs, and GE developed Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Services) Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

1-27 UNIX After Bell Labs withdrew from the Multics project, Ken Thompson developed a personal operating system called UNIX using assembly language Dennis Ritchie developed the programming language C which was used to rewrite much of UNIX in a highlevel language UNIX introduced A hierarchical file system The shell concept

Document production and formatting Tools for networked and distributed processing Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-28 Graphical User Interfaces 1960s: Doug Englebart (Stanford Research Institute) Invented windows and a mouse interface 1970s: Xerox PARC Creates a practical windowing system for the Dynabook project

1980s: Steve Jobs (Apple) Developed the Apple Lisa and MacIntosh Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-29 IBM PC 1982: Stand-alone, single user computer PC-DOS, MS-DOS (disk operating system) Later versions of DOS added Hierarchical directory file storage File redirection Better memory management Windowing systems Windows 2.0, Windows 3.1, Windows 95

Windows NT, Windows XP, Windows Vista Windows 7 and 8 Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-30 Communications 1960s and 1970s: users communicated on multiterminal computer systems using talk and email facilities 1971: Ray Tomlinson creates the standard [email protected] email standard Modems permitted users to login to office systems, electronic bulletin board systems, Compuserve, AOL, and Prodigy 1969: ARPANET begun 1985: First TCP/IP wide area network

1991: Tim Berners Lee develops the concepts that become the World Wide Web 1993: Max Andreessen develops Mosaic, the first graphical browser Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-31 Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and

not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1-32

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