CAUTION.. The sole purpose of this class is to expedite your passing the FAA knowledge test. With that said, all extra material not directly tested on the FAA knowledge test is omitted, even though much more information and knowledge is necessary to fly safely. Consult the FAR/AIM (CFR) and other FAA Handbooks for further information along with a Flight Instruction course. www.sportys/faatest CFR 61.65 (d)
Instrument Practical Test Requirements (d) Aeronautical experience for the instrument-airplane rating. A person who applies for an instrument-airplane rating must have logged: (1) Fifty hours of cross country flight time as pilot in command, of which 10 hours must have been in an airplane; and (2) Forty hours of actual or simulated instrument time in the areas of operation listed in paragraph (c) of this section, of which 15 hours must have been received from an authorized instructor who holds an instrument-airplane rating, and the instrument time includes: (i) Three hours of instrument flight training from an authorized instructor in an airplane that is
appropriate to the instrument-airplane rating within 2 calendar months before the date of the practical test; and (ii) Instrument flight training on cross country flight procedures, including one cross country flight in an airplane with an authorized instructor , that is performed under instrument flight rules, when a flight plan has been filed with an air traffic control facility, and that involves (A) A flight of 250 nautical miles along airways or by directed routing from an air traffic control facility; (B) An instrument approach at each airport; and (C) Three different kinds of approaches with the use of navigation systems. Instrument Rating RQTs
Private Pilot Knowledge Test 50hr Cross Country PIC 40hr Actual or Simulated 15 hrs w/CFII 250NM IFR Flight Instrument
Aprroach at each Airport 3 Different Kinds of Approaches 3hrs with CFII in preceding 2 calendar months Pitot Static System Airspeed Indicator Ram Air enters the Pitot Tube Static Pressure enters the Casing of the Airspeed Indicator
Higher pressure from the Pitot Tube expands the wafer, drives the gears, and indicates higher airspeed Lower pressure from the Pitot Tube contracts the wafer, drives the gears, and indicates lower airspeed. When the pressure on the Pitot Tube equals the Static pressure, the Airspeed Indicator reads zero What happens when the pitot tube and the drain hole freeze? Altimeter 29.92 HG inside the wafer
Static Pressure enters the case of the Altimeter High Static Pressure compresses the wafer and drives the gears and indicates low altitude Low Static pressure allows the wafer to expand, drives the gears to indicate high altitude If the Static port gets clogged, the altitude indicator freezes What happens if the alternate static air is used? Altimeter Altimeter indicates True Altitude at the field elevation if the local altimeter setting is used in an accurate altimeter
Atmospheric pressure decreases about 1in Hg for every 1000ft increase in altitude When changing the kollsman window from 30.11 to 29.96, the altimeter will decrease 150ft With the current altimeter setting, the altimeter should read within 75ft of actual altitude to be acceptable If pressure or temp becomes lower without adjusting the Kollsman window, your airplane will be lower than the altimeter indicates. Pressure altitude is the altitude read on the altimeter when set to 29.92 (The standard datum plane)
This is the altitude used about 18,000ft (Class A) Pressure altitude and density altitude are the same at standard temperature The local altimeter setting should be used by all pilots in a particular area primarily to provide for better vertical separation of aircraft. When Flying from High to Low Look out Below!!!! When Flying from High to Low Look out Below!!!!!
Reading an Altimeter Reading an Altimeter VSI Vertical Speed Indicator Trend Instrument due to the leak Measures instantaneous static pressure chg compared to the average static pressure change over last 6-9 seconds.
As Static Pressure is lower, then wafer contracts, driving the gears, and indicates positive rate of climb As Static Pressure is higher, then wafer expands, driving the gears to indicate rate of descent If the static port becomes clogged, then the pressure inside the wafer and the pressure inside the instrument tube will be the same and thus, the VSI indicates 0 climb or descent What happens if alternate air is used? Short term? Long term? If the VSI shows a descent of 100ft while on the taxiway during run-up, what can you do? Blocked Pitot Tube/Static Port Effects Airspeed Indicator
Altimeter VSI Mode C Blocked Static Port Blocked Pitot and Drain Hole Acts as a reverse Acts as an Altimeter Altimeter Frozen at altitude
N/A when Static Port was Blocked Reads Zero N/A Same as Altimeter N/A Blocked Pitot, open Drain Hole Airspeed = Zero N/A
N/A N/A Alternate Static Air Many airplanes have an alternate static air vent in the event the static port becomes plugged Alternate static air is taken from inside the cabin Since air is moving rapidly across the fuselage, bernoulis indicates that the cabin air pressure will be slightly lower than the outside air pressure Due to bernoullis, Altimeter, Mode C and Altimeter will read slightly high When first using alternate static air, the VSI will initially show a climb (due
to lower pressure), but will then indicate properly If Alternate Static Air does not work, or if not installed, break the glass on the VSI Direct access to the Static Line Not required for IFR flight Turn Indicator Vs Coordinator Powered by Electrical System Turn Indicator Turn Coordinator
Rate Of Turn Rate of Turn Rate of Roll Rate of Roll Vacuum System/Gyro Systems
Turn Coordinator Gyro Characteristics Spin at 20,000+ RPM Takes about 5 minutes to spin up Want to stay in the same place Resistance to deflection of the spinning wheel Called Rigidity in Space
A force applied results in a reaction 90 degrees in the direction of the rotation Gyroscopes Turn the battery ON (Master) and listen for unusual noises after the battery is turned on but before the engine is started Gyro Errors
Attitude Indicator (A/I) Indicates climb during acceleration Indicates descent during deceleration In a 180 degree turn, shows climb and roll in opposite direction Directional Guidance (D/G) Precesses due to friction Max 3 degrees per 15 minutes Can tumble at >60 degree pitch >100 degree bank
Set the DG to the magnetic compass 5 minutes after the engine has started. Why? Attitude Indicate Errors Acceleration Error Indicates a climb Deceleration Error Indicates a descent
Skidding Turn Error Indicates a turn in the opposite direction upon return to straight and level Steep Turn Error Most pronounced at 1800 Shows a climb and a turn in the opposite direction Remote Indicating Compass (RIC) Slave Mode puts the RIC to track the
compass. Free Gyro Mode allows you to adjust the RIC to the magnetic compass A left deflection means you push the clockwise button Remote Indicating Compass Test Supplement Book
Depressing the Clockwise button will rotate the compass card to the right to eliminate left error If the heading on the RIC is to the left of that desired, press the counter clockwise button
Magnetic Compass Errors Turns greater than 18 degree bank may cause compass to hang up on edge of card UNOS Turning Errors Undershoot North, Overshoot South 30 deg error at North and South Zero deg error at East and West ANDS Acceleration/Deceleration Errors Accelerate North, Decelerate South Due to Counter Weight being heavier than magnet
Body at rest stays at rest Body in motion stays in motion Turbulence causes Compass to oscillate Deviation Errors due to systems in the airplane Compass Card correction Variation Difference between True North and Magnetic North Isogonic lines on charts minus for East, add for West
Timed Turns 3 degs/second Dip Errors (Turning) Compass Acceleration Error Magnetic Compass On the taxi check, the magnetic compass should swing freely and indicate known headings
On a South heading, you turn right. The compass will indicate a turn to the right but at a faster rate than is occurring (UNOS) causing you to overshoot. On a North heading, you turn right. The compass will indicate a turn to the left (UNOS) causing you to undershoot. On a West or East heading, you turn right or left. The compass will indicate the correct magnetic heading
Mach Meter Shows the ratio of aircraft true airspeed to the speed of sound PFD vs MFD Glass Cockpits Enhance Situational Awareness
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