Census in Global Perspective

Census in Global Perspective

IPUMS-Eurasia, 2003-2007: Preserving Eurasian census microdata, making them useful, and promoting their use *** Robert McCaa, Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Deborah Levison and Miriam King University of Minnesota Population Center [email protected] www.ipums.org/international 1 IPUMS-Eurasia before Europe If so, the following needs to be done now: Official: Formalize agreement Release 1989 & 1994 samples for project development Unofficial, agree upon: Sample density: entire long-form preferred; 10% OK License fee: $$$ proportional to sample density Division of tasks (provisional): equitable Calendar (provisional): begin in 2003 1989 sample: OK? Or will a new one be drawn? 1979 and 1970: do any microdata tapes still exist? www.ipums.org/international 2 official statistics that meet the test of practical utility are to be compiled and made available on an impartial basis by official statistical agencies to honor citizens entitlement to public information. Widespread Internet Technology -- UN Statistical Commission, 1994 diffusion is a pre-requisite for the development of civil society based on free access to information through the global Internet. --President Putin, March 6, 2001 http://president.kremlin.ru/events/17 www.ipums.org/international 3 8.html I P U M S I N T E R N A T I O N A L Imagine a new statistical product: scientifically anonymized, integrated census microdata samples made up of unidentifiable individuals... Easy-to-use web 1998: 1 country signed interface 3 scientific countries 1999: Highest 2000: 9 standards 2001: Proven,15 powerful 2002: 32; first release, 6 integration countries A quantum leap in usage www.ipums.org/international 4 I P U M S

E U R A S I A B e f o r e E u r o p e ? Eurasia Phase: 2003-2007 Advantages of a Eurasia-phase, before Europe Statistical coherence of 1989/2000 censuses Readily organizable 12 countries, not 40 One linguistic standard: Russian Progress on negotiating agreements Technical OKs: Belarus, Moldova Republic www.ipums.org/international Negotiating: Armenia, 5 I P U M Si B E N E F I T S Researchers, world-wide: free, high quality data harmonized, National Statistics comprehensive Institutes: increased usage enhanced cost-benefit ratio People: payment for license we are fees,who expertise what the future may bring how policies might www.ipums.org/international 6 improve IPUMS-International, a global collaboratory of National Statistical/Research Institutes: 1. Inventories the worlds census microdata 2. Preserves endangered microdata and documentation *** 3. Integrates datasets of selected countries using UNSD, Eurostat and other standards 4. Anonymizes census microdata to preserve statistical confidentiality, using highest standards 5. Disseminates customized extracts free of charge (with complete copies on CDs to all partners) Integrated Public Use Microdata Series - International www.ipums.org/international 7 Phase 1: 19992004 I P U M Si P A R T

N E R S Brazil 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001 Colombia 1964, 1973, 1985, 1993, 2003 Mexico 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 France 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990 Hungary 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 Spain 1981, 1991, 2001 www.ipums.org/international 8 IPUMS-Latin America, 2003-2007: 16 countries, ~500m. people Scope: Latin American census microdata , 1960-present Work Plan ( funded by National Institutes of Health) 2222222 2ign licensing agreements with official agenciesn licensing agreements with official agenciesnsingn licensing agreements with official agenciesagn licensing agreements with official agenciesrensing agreements with official agenciesensing agreements with official agenciesmensing agreements with official agenciesnts with official agenciesofficial agn licensing agreements with official agenciesensing agreements with official agenciesnciensing agreements with official agenciess 2002: Obtain funding from U.S. NIH 2003: Develop/translate microdata & metadata 2004: Country expert teams design national integrations 2005: MPC/expert teams design regional integration 2006: MPC integrates microdata and metadata 2007: MPC disseminates to bona fide researchers who sign non-disclosure license. National census/research institutes via CDs/web. www.ipums.org/international 9 I P U M SE U R O P E P A R T N E R S Europe Phase: 2004-8 Phase 1 European partners: INSEE-France 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990 CSO-Hungary 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 INE-Spain 1981, 1991, 2001 Phase 2, 2004-2007: 10 OK: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Ireland, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, UK www.ipums.org/international 5 Approval pending: Finland, 10 P I R P E U S M E Si R V E S UN Demographic Center for Latin America (CELADE, Santiago, Chile) ~3000 microdata tapes preserved and metadata (documentation) www.ipums.org/international 11 IPUMS-International Samples Country Census Year % Sample

Persons (000s) Colombia 1964 1973 1985 1993 2 10 10 10 350 1,989 2,643 3,274 France 1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 5 5 5 5 4.2 2,321 2,488 2,629 2,714 2,361 Kenya 1989 1999 5 5 1,074 1,410 Mexico 1960 1970 1990 2000 1.5 1 1 10.6 503 483 803 10,099 United States 1960 1970 1980 1990 1 6 6 6 1,800 12,030 12,267 12,500 Vietnam 1989 1999 5 3 2,627 2,368 2002 Data Release I P U M Si S A M P L E S

www.ipums.org/international 13 I P U M Si National Statistical Institutes are paid a nonexclusive license fee for integrated data P A Y S National experts are paid to: Assemble microdata and documentation Develop samples to minimize confidentiality risks and to maximize robustness Design national/regional integration plan census-by-census www.ipums.org/international concept-by-concept 14 I N I T P E Census Standard:UN/ U G documentation Eurostat M R for compiled Principles & i S A Colombian Recs... Photos from Colombia microdata T integration project, FebruaryMarch, 2000: E 4 experts from DANE (census S office) +7 www.ipums.org/international academics (3 universities) 15 IPUMSi integration principles 1. Respect absolute anonymity and confidentiality 2. Preserve all original data, except adjustments to insure privacy (top codes, blurrings, masking, re-ordering, etc.) 3. Harmonize codes using international standards occupation: ISCO, HISCO (detailed, general) education: ISCED family: IPUMS, etc. 4. Enhance with constructed variables www.ipums.org/international 16 Variable availability, preliminary release Selected Variable Topic Availability, by Country and Census Year 64 Geography and internal migration Place of usual residence Place of birth Duration of residence Place of previous residence Place of residence at a specified date in the past Household and family structure Relationship to head of household/householder Demographic and social Sex Age Marital Status Citizenship Religion Language National and/or ethnic group Fertility and mortality Children ever born Children living Date of birth of last child born alive

Deaths in the past 12 months Maternal or paternal orphanhood Age, date or duration of first marriage Education Literacy School attendance Educational attainment Field of education and educational qualification Economics Activity status Time worked Occupation Industry Status in employment Income Institutional sector of employment Place of work International migration Country of birth Citizenship Year or period of arrival Disability Disability Cause of disability Colombia 73 85 93 62 68 France 75 82 90 Kenya 89 99 60 Mexico 70 90 00 60 United States 70 80 90 Vietnam 89 99 x x x x . x x x x . x x . . x x x . . x x x . . x x x . . x x x . . x x x . . x x x . . x x x .

. x x x x . x x x x x . x x x x . x x . . x x x . . x x x x . x x x x . x x x x . x x x x . x x . . . x x . . . x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x . . . . x x x . . . . x x x . . . . x x x . . . x x x x x . . . x x x x . . . x x x x . . . x x x x . . . x x x x . . . x x x x . . x x x x x x . x x x x x x . x x x x . x x . x x x . x x . x

x x . x x x x x x . . . x x x x x . . x x x x x . x x x x x x . x x x x x . . . x x x x . x . x . . . . . . x x x . . . x x . . . . x x x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . x x x . x . x x x . x . x . . . . . x . . . . . x . . . . . x x x . . . x . . . . x x . . . . x x . . . . x x . . . . . x x x . . . x x x x . . x . x . x x x . x x x . x x x . . .

x x . . x x . . x . . . x . . . x . x x x . . x x . x . x . x x x . x x x . x x x x . x x . . x x . . x x . . x x . x x x x x x x x x x x x x . . . x . x x x . . . x x . . x . . . x .

x x . . . x . x x x . x x x . x x x . x x x . x x x . x x x . x x x . x x x . x x x . x x x . x . x . . . x . . . . . . . . x x x x . . . x x x x x x . . x x x x x x . . x x x x x x . x x x x x x x .

x x x x x x x . x x x x x x x . x x x x x x x . x x . x x . . . . x . x x . . x . x . . x . . x . x x . . x x . x x . x x . x x . x x . x . . x . . x . . x . . x . . x . . x x . x

x x x x x x x x . . . . . . . . . . . . x . x x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x x . . x . x . x . . . . . www.ipums.org/international 17 Composite coding scheme example: marital status Coding Scheme and Category Availability for Marital Status Colombia Code 100 210 211 212 213 214 220 310 320 330 340 341 342 343 344 350 400 999

Label SINGLE/NEVER MARRIED MARRIED/IN UNION Married (not specified) Civil Religious Civil and religious Polygamous Consensual union SEPARATED/DIVORCED/SPOUSE ABSENT Separated or Divorced Separated Divorced Married, spouse absent (n.s.) MSA, civil MSA, religious MSA, civil and religious MSA, polygamous Consensual union, spouse absent WIDOWED UNKNOWN/MISSING France Kenya Mexico United States Vietnam 64 73 85 93 62 68 75 82 90 89 99 60 70 90 00 60 70 80 90 89 99 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X . . . . X X X X X X . . . . . . . . . . . X X X X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X

X X X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X X X X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X X . . . . . . . . . . X X X X .

. . . . . . X X X X . . . . . . . X X X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X X . X X X X X X X

X X . . . . X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X . . . . X X X X X X . . . . . . . . . . . X

X X X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X X X X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X X X X . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . X X . . . . . . . . . . X X X X . . . . . . . X X X X . . . . . . X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X . X X X . . . . . X X X X X X . . . . X X www.ipums.org/international 18 Occupation: the ISCO standard, preliminary release: 1 digit final: 2-3 or 4 digit, depending upon country Coding Schemes and Category Availability for Occupation Code Label 64 Colombia 73 85 93 62 68 France 75 82 90 Kenya 89 99 60 Mexico 70 90 00 United States Vietnam 60 70 80 90 89 99 OCCUPATION, ISCO 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 98 99 Legislators, senior officials and managers Professionals Technicians and associate professionals Clerks Service workers and shop and market sales Skilled agricultural and fishery workers Crafts and related trades workers Plant and machine operators and assemblers Elementary occupations

Armed forces Unknown N/A X X . . X X X X X . X X X X X X X X X . X X X . . X X X X X . X X X X X X X X X . X X X . . X X X X X . X X

X X X X X X X . X X X . . X X X X X . X X X X X X X X X . X X X . . X X X X X . X X X X X X X X X . X X X . . X

X X X X . X X X X X X X X X . X X X . . X X X X X . X X X X X X X X X . X X X . . X X X X X . X X X X X X X X X

. X X X . . X X X X X . X X X X X X X X X . X X . . . X X X X X . X X X X X X X X X . . X X . . . . . . X . X X

X X X . . . . . . X . . . X X X X X . X X X X X X X X X . X www.ipums.org/international 19 I P U M Si A N O N Y M I Z E S Using the highest standards available: administrative (license), legal, and technical (US Census Bureau, Eurostat, & others) Suppress geographical detail Blur/aggregate sensitive codes Convert dates to ages (blur key vars.) Swap cases between www.ipums.org/international 20 districts shall mean the protection of data related to single statistical units which are obtained directly for statistical purposes or indirectly from administrative or other sources against any breach of the right to confidentiality. It implies the prevention of non-statistical utilization of the data obtained and unlawful disclosure. --COUNCIL REGULATION

(EC) www.ipums.org/international 21 No 322/97 of 17 February Anonymization plan: Kenya, 1989 Kenya: Anonymization Based on Unique Characteristics Threshold (100,000 for geographic variables; 10,000 for other variables) Type Procedure Variable Name Key Suppressed Division, Location, Sublocation, Enumeration area Aggregated 100,000 minimum: Province, District of Residence, Birth and Past Residence Sex, Marital Status, Relationship to Head None Sensitive Aggregated 10,000/1,000 minimum: Tribe/Ethnicity, Occupation, Employment Status Transitory (information is considered too changeable to be used to identify individuals from microdata). None Age, Urban/Rural Residence, Literacy, Educational Status, Educational Level, Labor Activity, Children Everborn/Alive/Dead, Last Birth Year, Mortality variables Note: For greater detail and a reproduction of the 1989 enumeration form, see Appendix 3. www.ipums.org/international 22 EUROSTAT statistical anonymity standards (Thorogood, 1999) --all used by IPUMS-International 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. small sample size limited geographical detail top and bottom coding of unique categories signed non-disclosure agreement prohibit redistribution of datasets to third parties 6. prohibit attempts to identify individuals or the making any claim to that effect 7. require users to provide copies of publications www.ipums.org/international 23 EUROSTAT statistical anonymity standards (Thorogood, 1999) --all used by IPUMSi and more 8. Age (constructed, where necessary) 9. Never identify date of birth 10. Never identify place of birth 11. Migration: timing and place not identified in detail 12. Place of residence identified by major civil division (pop>60k, 120k, 250k, 1 million--national rule) 13. Sensitivity analysis of variables by national experts 14. Confidentiality assessment by national experts www.ipums.org/international 24 International Monetary Funds General Data Dissemination System 52 countries with uniform standards All embrace strict standards of statistical confidentiality All prohibit disclosure of information which may identify individuals or entities And 37 of 52 countries distribute census microdata samples Why not Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan Republic, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, or Uzbekistan? www.ipums.org/international 25 I P

U M Si D I S S E M I N A T E S Web-based extraction system Legally-binding license agreement protects privacy and confidentiality assures proper use; new sanction: loss of employment. Researcher selects Countries, Censuses, Cases/sub-populations, Variables, and Sample densities--makes www.ipums.org/international 26 chronological &/or cross-national research possible IPUMS-Eurasia, 2003-2007: 12 countries, >280 m. people Scope: Eurasia census microdata, 1989-present Work Plan (contingent upon funding): Jan 2003: Sign licensing agreements with official agenc ies Nov 2003: Obtain funding from US NIH 2004: Pay licenses/sign contracts to develop/translate microdata & metadata 2005: Country expert teams design national integrations 2006: MPC/expert teams design Eurasia integration 2007: MPC integrates microdata and metadata 2008 and beyond: MPC disseminates to bona fide researchers who sign non-disclosure license. National census/research institutes disseminate via www.ipums.org/international 27 CDs/web. On a millennial scale, censuses and census microdata survive for only a short, but significant period www.ipums.org/international 28 IPUMS-Eurasia, 2003-2007: What needs to be done now? Official: Formalize agreement Release 1989 & 1994 samples for project development Unofficial, agree upon: Sample density: entire long-form preferred; 10% OK License fee: $$$ proportional to sample density Division of tasks (provisional): equitable Calendar (provisional): begin in 2003 1989 sample: OK? Or will a new one be drawn? 1979 and 1970: do any microdata tapes still exist? www.ipums.org/international 29 additional information at: www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/ipumseurasia contact: [email protected] ***** Thank you www.ipums.org/international 30

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