Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

CELLULAR RESPIRATION CELLULAR RESPIRATION Objectives Where cell respiration takes place When cell respiration takes place How cell respiration takes place Why cell respiration takes place What is produced by cell respiration AUTOTROPHS AND HETEROTROPHS

Organisms can be classified into two groups according to how they obtain their energy: Autotrophs- or organisms that are able to produce their own food Examples: plants, algae and some protists Heterotrophs- organisms that depend on

other organisms for their energy Examples: Humans, animals, fungi and most bacteria METABOLISM Metabolism - is a set of chemical reactions that happen in the cells of living organisms to maintain life The speed of metabolism (or metabolic

rate) influences how much food an organism will require, and also affects how it is able to obtain that food CELLULAR RESPIRATION Cellular Respiration is a series of reactions where fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, mostly glucose, are broken down to make CO2, water, and energy (ATP) Anytime the cell is performing a function or job it needs energy

to accomplish that task This ATP provides cells with the energy they need to carry out the activities of life. The Chemical Equation for Cell Respiration: C6H12O6 + O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36-38 ATP Most of Cell Respiration takes place in the Mitochondria organelle MITOCHONDRIA

The matrix or inner space is where carbohydrates are broken down to form: 3-carbon pieces (pyruvate) CO2 water The cristae or inner membrane is where ATP is made ATP Adenine Base

3 Phosphates Ribose Sugar Most of the energy from cell respiration is converted into ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) ATP is an Organic molecule containing high-energy Phosphate bonds

Cell Respiration Glycolysis Oxygen present Anaerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration Krebs Cycle Electron Transport System

Little or No Oxygen Alcoholic Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation CELLULAR RESPIRATION The Stages of Cellular Respiration: 1. Glycolysis 2. Either:

Aerobic - in the presence of oxygen or Anaerobic Respiration - in the absence of oxygen CELLULAR RESPIRATION Glycolysis Takes place in the cytoplasm of cells In this stage glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvate, making 2 ATP molecules Pyruvate- an ion (charged particle) of a threecarbon organic acid called pyruvic acid. Glycolysis does NOT require O2 CELLULAR RESPIRATION When oxygen is present Aerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria in 2 phases:

Krebs Cycle (citric acid cycle)- The Krebs cycle is a series of reactions that produce energy-storing molecules (NADH and FADH2), H+ and CO2 during aerobic respiration. Electron Transport Chain - During aerobic respiration, large amounts of ATP are made (36-38) as H+ are used to turn ATP Synthase Oxygen binds to the H+ ions as they come through ATP Synthase CELL RESPIRATION FERMENTATION Fermentation is the breakdown of pyruvate when oxygen is not present enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold frequently undergo fermentation After glycolysis, then two different pathways of

pyruvic acid breakdown will occur: Alcoholic Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION In alcoholic fermentation occurs when pyruvic acid is used to create 2 ATP molecules in a two-step process that also creates:

Ethyl Alcohol CO2 This process is carried on by bacteria and yeast It is used to make alcoholic beverages and helps dough to rise LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is converted to lactic acid to produce 2 ATP molecules and CO2

This occurs in muscle cells that have used up their oxygen supply but still need energy Lactic acid can accumulate in muscle cells making them sore and stiff until it is removed by the bloodstream REVIEW When oxygen is present most the ATP made in cellular respiration is produced by: A. aerobic respiration

B. Glycolysis C. alcoholic fermentation D. Lactic acid fermentation.

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