Canadian Internationalism: International Peace and Security
CANADIAN INTERNATIONALISM: The Nations Contributions to International Peace and Human Security by Dr. Walter Dorn, Visiting Research Professor, RMC Faculty, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre 26 March 2002 INTERNATIONALISM ... Commitment to civilized relations among nations law and order in the world
peace and harmony among human beings Long-standing Canadian ideal with broad multiparty support Pearsonian internationalism (Liberal) Constructive internationalism (PC) Human Security: Humane internationalism (Axworthy) New internationalism (Manley) Cf. Canadian Alliance
Colonialism Neo-isms WHY INTERNATIONALISTIC? Canada recognizes the need for the rule of international law Basis of internal governance Whereas Canada is founded upon principles that recognize ... the rule of law (Charter) Important for conduct of its external relations
WHY INTERNATIONALISTIC? (CONTD) Smaller nation needing protection of the law Might is right counterbalanced by Right is might Invaded by United States (War of 1812), ended with 1814 Treaty of Ghent, establishing a boundary commission to settle disputes Early arms control treaty: 1817 Rush-Bagot agreement limited naval armament on the Great Lakes, preventing an arms race there Longest undefended border in the world WHY INTERNATIONALISTIC? (CONTD)
Historically associated as a junior partner of a world superpower * British Empire * United States Not in a position to exert power unilaterally Relying on diplomacy more than military might A middle power, helpful fixer role Both historical and contemporary situation HISTORICAL TRADITION Peaceful nation Born of the pen, not the sword British North America Act, Entry Into Force: July 1, 1867 Peace, Order and Good Government (POGG)
Rival battleground of two empires, long since friends Not directly threatened by attack No invasion or territorial attack since War of 1812 War as a divisive internal issue Conscription crises HISTORY (CONTD) Creating Quintessential Canadian symbols Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) officer Bringing law and order to the wild west; We always get our man!
Treaties with Indians No slavery Terminus of the underground railroad Strict gun control Renounced option to build nuclear weapons OTHER FACTORS Multicultural fabric
Two founding European cultures First-nations contributions and claims recognized Bilingual government (today) A nation of immigrants Differences: not only tolerated but celebrated Not "melting pot" but "salad bowl" Quintessential Canadian symbols RCMP officer; Peace Tower A trading nation An outward-oriented attitude
Not isolationist, Not self-centred Canada is a nation founded on a union of two great races. The harmony of their partnership is an example to all mankind -an example everywhere in the world. US President Franklin Roosevelt, 1943, Address to the House of Commons CANADIAN MILITARY HISTORY No wars on Canadian soil for almost two centuries But involved in foreign wars
more than 100,000 died overseas Aid to empire (Boer War, WWI) Boer War in South Africa (1899-1902) WWI automatically at war 600,000 men; 3,000 women (nurses) to war 60,000 killed Victory in South Africa Canadas first coalition war MILITARY HISTORY (CONTD) Aid to Europe (WWII, Cold War) Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion in Spanish Civil War (1936-39) WWII (Canada declared war on its own)
One million Canadians, 45,000 women (most military roles, except combat) 42,000 service people killed Aid to UN (global contributions) Korean War (1950-53) 26,791 Canadian soldiers served 1,558 casualties Other peoples wars have been our business CONTD No conquests, no wars of aggression, no enemies!
No attacks on Canada since confederation & no bilateral wars Still 1.5 million served abroad; over 100,000 never returned No lost wars (Boer, WWI, WWII, Korea, Gulf) Tradition of peacekeeping, over 100 supreme sacrifice Contrast to US military history
Internal: Civil war External/bilateral: Spanish-American, Vietnam Teddy Roosevelt: Walk softly and carry a big stick US Army: Fight and win the nation's wars EVOLUTION IN FOREIGN AFFAIRS Evolution not revolution Gradual development of an independent voice in foreign affairs Department of External Affairs, 1909 Mackenzie King insists on own foreign policies, recognized at the Imperial Conference and 1931 Statute of Westminster
Desire to lend a helping hand No messianic calling Balfour committees statement, 1926 National Archives of Canada 1926 Imperial Conference Dominions are autononomous communities within the British empire, equal in status, and in no
way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations. Ernest Lapointe, Mackenzie King, Vincent Massey and Peter Larkin. National Archives of Canada Mackenzie King signs the
Kellogg-Briand Pact (Multilateral Treaty for the Renunciation of War) renouncing war as an instrument of national policy, Paris, France, 1928 August 27, 1928, Paris, Along with 15 other nations high hopes, ineffective, counterproductive, utopian Statute of Westminster 1931 Confirmed the right of dominions to independent
conduct of their external relations "We in Canada have just as good material and brains for the Foreign Service as any other part of the Empire. Mackenzie King EVOLUTION IN DOMESTIC AFFAIRS Official Languages Act 1969 Both French and English languages in parliament, federal courts and government offices
Universal Health Care Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act (1957); Medical Care Act (1968), Health Care Act (1984) Gun control 1995 Firearms Act for licensing and registration DETAILED HISTORICAL REVIEW PRE-CONFEDERATION: TURBULENT TIMES 1750s: full scale war
1755: expulsion of the Acadians 1759: Battle of the Plains of Abraham 1775: loyalists start moving to Canada 1812: US attack on Canada and its repulsion October 13, 1812 - Battle of Queenston Heights, Lt.Gen. Brock PRECUSOR TO INTERNATIONALISM? Loyalty to Empire A different form of order and governance Defence of the "Motherland"
Fighting in the Boer War, WW I For the empire - Memorial Arch, 1924 SIR WILFRED LAURIER The twentieth century belongs to Canada. Sir Wilfred Laurier One century too early? Those who accept a share in a responsibility for the defence and security of this vast Empire are no longer to be considered as wards by self-constituted
guardians." Sir Robert Borden, 1912 (after making $35 million contribution to building of British Dreadnoughts) WORLD WAR I As a member of the Empire, Canada became a belligerent the moment Britain declared war. Sir Wilfred Laurier: The call had come, and the only conceivable response was the historic British
answer to the call to duty: 'Ready, aye, ready'. Sir Wilfred Laurier Sir Robert Borden Imperial War Cabinet, London, 1917 WW I RECRUITING POSTER WORLD WAR I Over 60,000 Canadians dead,
another 173,000 wounded on the battlefields of Europe Vimy Ridge, 9 April 1917 PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE Negotiations for the League of Nations Covenant Canada gets independent seat Canadian vote recognized as separate from the Empire The self-governing Dominions of the British Empire may be selected or named as members of the [League of Nations] Council
PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE AFTERMATH Canada argues against collective security Article X: members to "respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence" of all League members Canada seeks to reduce commitment IN THE LEAGUE in this association of Mutual Insurance against fire, the risks assumed by the different States are not equal. We live in a fire-proof house, far from inflammable materials. Senator Raoul Dandurand, leader of Mackenzie Kings Liberal government in the Senate, to the League Assembly 1924
Attempts to emasculate Article X Canadian delegation, 1928 L to R: O.D. Skelton, P. Roy, Sen. R. Dandurand, W.L. Mackenzie King, C. Dunning and W. Riddell SLIPPING TO WORLD WAR II Japan invades Manchuria, 1931 Canada opposes the imposition of economic sanctions by the League Mussolini invades Abyssinia, 1935 PM R.B. Bennett: "No doubt we signed the Covenant; no doubt of Italy's guilt; we must take the
consequences." Walter Riddell, at the League, proposes economic sanctions, including oil, in the "Canadian proposal" PM Mackenzie King (1936) publicly repudiates Riddell RENOUNCING SANCTIONS In 1936 King went to Geneva where he renounced the notion of collective security, asserting that the League's role should be one of conciliation and mediation, not punishment.
The League of Nations, with assurances of the most distinguished consideration, was ushered out into the darkness by Mr. Mackenzie King. John W. Dafoe, Winnipeg Free Press W.L. Mackenzie King and W.A. Riddell, Geneva, September 1936.
King supports policy of appeasement followed by the British government of Neville Chamberlain ABYSSINIA, 1936 W.L. Mackenzie King and W.A. Riddell in September 1936. King, who succeeded Bennett, was furious. Not only had Riddell exceeded his instructions, but he had also placed Canada squarely in the international spotlight, which King much preferred to avoid. Such leadership should be left to the great powers. Worse, sanctions received only moderate support in English Canada and outright opposition in Quebec. The government publicly repudiated Riddell. In the end Italy, like Japan, went unpunished. The League of Nations was effectively dead.
WORLD WAR II Germany invades Poland: September 1, 1939 Britain declares war two days later Canadian Parliament votes declares war: September 10 UNITED NATIONS Active participation in the creation of second generation international orgs
Canadian delegation in San Francisco, 1945 - Drafting of UN Charter at the Conference on International Organization - Bretton Woods institutions EARLY CONTRIBUTIONS John Humphrey of McGill University, prepared the first draft of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Dr. Brock Chisholm was first director-general of the World Health Organization
Golden Age of Canadian Diplomacy 1945-1957 Canada will "fulfil the growing responsibilities in world affairs which we have accepted as a modern state Gen. Andrew G.L. McNaughton as UN Security Council President, 1949.
Louis St. Laurent, 1947 1948, General Andrew McNaughton appointed Canada's first permanent delegate to UN in New York. Gen. McNaughton (left) with Lionel Chevrier, Charles Ritchie, and John Holmes at the United Nations General Assembly in Paris, 1948. QUOTES
The UNs vocation is Canadas vocation. Prime Minister Louis St Laurent, 1946 Whether we live together in confidence and cohesion; with more faith and pride in ourselves and less self-doubt and hesitation; strong in the conviction that the destiny of Canada is to unite, not divide; sharing in cooperation, not in separation or in conflict; respecting our past and welcoming our future. Lester Pearson CANADA AT THE UN
General Assembly: Security Council: Always someone in the Canadian Seat Once a decade Secretariat: Hundreds of Canadians SOLDIERS FOR PEACE Lt.Gen. Burns
NAC Chief of Staff, UNTSO, 1955-56 First Commander, UN Emergency Force, 1956- ELM Burns at UN Brig. Henry Angle DND Chief Military Observer,
UNIMOG, July 1950 First Canadian to die in a peacekeeping mission Henry Angle in Kashmir, 1949 PEACE ENFORCEMENT: KOREA 1950-53 June 25, 1950 - North Korea invades its southern neighbour. June 25,27: UN Sec. Council authorizes use of force First time an IO mandates use of armed force to repel an
attack In July 1950, three Canadian destroyers were placed under UN command. Later a Brigade group is sent. DND Raising UN flag, Jan. 1951 PEACEKEEPING: SPECIAL CANADIAN CONTRIBUTIONS COMMITMENT
Early peacekeeping missions Korea (1947) Palestine (1949) Kashmir (1949) The invention of peacekeeping forces (1956) Pearsons proposal for UN forces in Suez Crisis From 1946-99, no other country participated in as many peacekeeping missions List at www.forces.gc.ca/admpol/org/dg_is/d_pk/sitrep_archive_e.htm
PEACEKEEPING FORCES UN Suez Crisis (1956) France, UK and Israel agree to withdraw if UN takes position First UN peacekeeping force created at the initiative of Lester B. Pearson (For. Min. and President of the GA) First Commander: General ELM (Tommy) Burns
UNITED NATIONS EMERGENCY FORCE (UNEF) Canadian members of the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) inspect an Egyptian base in the Sinai peninsula in 1958. NOBEL PEACE PRIZE 1957 To Canada's Lester Bowles Pearson was given primarily for his role in trying to end the Suez conflict and to solve the Middle East question through the United
Nations. - Norwegian Nobel Committee Lester B. Pearson, Nobel Prize acceptance, Oslo, Dec. 11, 1957 BUILD ON THAT FOUNDATION PEARSONS NOBEL SPEECH We made at least a beginning then. If, on that foundation, we do not build something more permanent and stronger, we will once again have ignored realities, rejected opportunities and betrayed out trust. Lester B. Pearson, Nobel Prize acceptance speech,
Oslo, Dec. 11, 1957 CDN FATALITIES DURING PSO Source: Peace Support Training Centre (Kingston) FATALITIES WITHIN UN-PK OPS BY RISK TYPE 1948 - AUGUST 1998 (Selected Missions with high Fatalities) MISSION Accid.
Hostile Illness Other total UNAVEM III 13 6 16 1
36 UNDOF 19 7 6 7 39
UNFICYP 91 15 40 22 168 UNIFIL
93 83 42 10 228 UNOSOM II 30
110 8 UNPROFOR 98 75 29 10
212 UNTAC 33 25 21 5 84
UNTSO 8 24 4 2 38 overall Total
657 573 271 80 1581 148 Source: Peace Support Training Centre (Kingston)
1990s - VAST INCREASE IN PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS Canadian participation 3-4 new missions each decade (1945-90) 33 new missions in past decade (1990s) New sponsors NATO MEDALS FOR PEACEKEEPERS 1988 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to all UN Peacekeepers Canadian Peacekeeping Service Medal (2000-)
RECOGNITION AT HOME PEACEKEEPING DEPLOYMENTS: SHIFT TO NATO Shift to NATO 20:1 troops (4,000 NATO to 200 UN) Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan Contributor to UN: positioned in low thirties (1995-) CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL ISSUES
Disarmament Peacekeeping Diplomatic relations Human security Support for the UN Military forces abroad only in coalitions or multilateral operations
HUMAN RIGHTS & SECURITY Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person and the right not to be deprived thereof except in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice. - Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Human Security Agenda - Presentation PROBLEMS OF INTERNATIONALISM? Potential loss of short term benefits Dependent on others Most powerful
International community Requires trust in the roles Further distance from sources of hard power Less role in balance of power Further removed from collective defence Taken advantage of Rule-breakers take advantage of do-gooders ALTERNATIVES TO INTERNATIONALISM Nationalism Self-reliance and self-assertion
Alliance with the most powerful Allied to Britain, US Loyal ally or lackey? Meet demands of most powerful Balancing the tension: bilateral vs international Role of peacekeeping as both NATO versus UN peacekeeping US-led versus UN-led military enforcement CONCLUSIONS Inescapable internationalism Balancing act
Interests of allies, with national and global interests Compromises The provision of a Human Security Fellowship from the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade is gratefully acknowledged. Note: The views expressed in this presentation are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of DFAIT, DND or the Canadian government.
QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS PICTURE CREDITS DFAIT: www.international.gc.ca/history-histoire/ph otos/index.aspx links to www.canschool.org/relation/history DND: www.dnd.ca/menu/galleryindex_e.html UN: www.unmultimedia.org/photo BIBLIOGRAPHY
Burn, ELM, Between Arab and Israeli Ignatieff, George, The Making of a Peacemonger Pearson, Lester B., The Four Faces of Peace DFAIT: www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/hist Human Security: www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/foreignp/humansecurity/menu-e.asp In addition, refer to the DFAIT publication: Human Security: Safety for People in a Changing World, available on the Web
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