Canada and Conflict in the Cold War Key Terms The Korean War Suez Crisis Cuban Missile Crisis Avro Arrow The Nuclear Issue Vietnam War
The Korean War After WWII, Korea was a divided country North = Communist = Soviet and Chinese Ally South = fragile Democracy = USA ally 1950 war begins North invaded the South The Korean War UN force, mostly American, went in
Canada also sent thousands of troops and three naval destroyers In UN, Pearson argues for ceasefire US considers use of nuclear weapons ceasefire reached in 1953 The Korean War Epilogue Nearly 30 000 troops served in action 1558 total casualties for Canadians 516 deaths for Canadians
Once again, Canada participated beyond her size as a nation The Suez Crisis The Suez Canal is an important shipping route in the Middle East. The canal was privately owned, but was on Egyptian territory. The Egyptian President was angry at Western leaders over a
dam project they did not support, so, he seized control of the canal. The Suez Crisis Canadian diplomat - Lester Pearson - proposed that a UN emergency force be sent to the Canal Zone to separate and mediate between the opposing sides.
Lead by a Canadian general, the force was composed of troops from countries not involved in the conflict. The Suez Crisis His plan worked and a peaceful resolution to a conflict that had threatened to involve Israel and the Soviet Union was reached.
For his part, Pearson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Spies!!! The Cold War was brought home to Canada by the Gouzenko Affair. Igor Gouzenko, a clerk at the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa exposed a Soviet spy ring in Canada in 1945. Newspaper headlines read: Its War! Its Russia!.
18 people were arrested with 8 eventually convicted of spying - likely trying to get Atomic Bomb secrets. The Nuclear Issue The Canadian government continued to struggle with the question of whether or not to accept nuclear
weapons on Canadian soil. The Nuclear Issue Diefenbaker waffled on the idea when he accepted Bomarc Missiles - designed for a nuclear payload - but never armed them with warheads.
The Nuclear Issue In 1963 the issue was at the centre of the election campaign. Diefenbaker fought his campaign on an anti-American platform, while Liberal leader Lester Pearson (remember the Peace Prize), ran on a policy of accepting nuclear weapons. Pearson won the election narrowly. Later, nuclear weapons were accepted.
Cuban Missile Crisis In 1958, Fidel Castro overthrew the US backed government of Cuba and made it a Communist country. Cuba is less than 150 km from Florida. Cuban Missile Crisis
The US mounted a failed invasion of Cuba in 1961 in an attempt to overthrow the Communists. This prompted the Cubans to turn to the Soviets for support. Cuban Missile Crisis In 1962, American spy
planes photographed Nuclear Missile bases on Cuba. Tensions rose when the Americans blockaded Cuba so that no missiles could reach the sites. Cuban Missile Crisis The US expected full support from Canada.
Canadian Prime Minister Diefenbaker did not support the American plan and failed to answer American requests for assistance for two days. This infuriated the Americans. "This action by the State Department of the U.S. is
unprecedented...it constitutes an unwarranted intrusion in Canadian affairs... [Canada] will not be pushed around or accept external domination or interference in making its decisions." "President Kennedy was going to obliterate us. I dared to say to him that Canada's policies would be made in Canada by Canadians. Diefenbaker
Cuban Missile Crisis The PM thought he was looking out for Canadas independence, but polls showed that 80% of Canadians thought he did the wrong thing.
Cuban Missile Crisis The crisis was defused in 13 days after the Americans traded the dismantling of bases in Turkey for the dismantling of the Cuban bases. Vietnam War
Like Korea, a communist North fought a capitalist South in Vietnam. The US supported the South while the Soviets and the Chinese supported the North. By 1965 - 66 the Americans were involved in a massive bombing operation and had committed 190 000 troops to the Vietnam war. Vietnam War
Prime Minister Pearson openly criticized the US bombing policy and was physically assaulted by the American President Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ). Vietnam War The Vietnam war was the first war to be televised. The coverage showed the
horrors of the war and lead to growing opposition in both the US and Canada. Demonstrators would shout: Hey Hey LBJ! How many kids have you killed today? Vietnam War Young men from the US (draft dodgers)
came to Canada to escape participation in the war. Canada was becoming known as a peaceful nation - less violent than the US. Vietnam War By 1975, the United States withdrew
from Vietnam in large part due to pressure put on them by their own people. Lets Think About It Hot 10 Cold
1 Rate the Decisions Made by Canadas Government in each of the situations. Use a scale of 1 to 10 - 1 being Poor to 10 being Excellent KoreaCuban Nuclear Vietnam MissileIssue
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