All Quiet on the Western Front BY ERICH MARIA REMARQUE All Quiet on the Western a r o n n o i t a Front er an accusnture, for ARIA M H RIC E BY E RQU A M

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m h e y R ( a m r. a w e h t y b Anticipation Guide Complete the following Anticipation Guide by placing an A if you agree with the statement or a D if you disagree with the statement. 1) Sometimes war is the only way for conflicting countries to solve their problems____ 2) No one under 20 should be allowed to fight for their country ____ 3) Killing is wrong no matter what the situation is ____ 4) Political leaders are the only ones responsible for war ____

5) Your country is worth dying for ____ 6) It is unpatriotic to question your nations leaders____ 7) You would fight for your friends and family before fighting for your country____ Chapter 1 1. Where are the men at rest? Five miles behind the front 2. Why is there such an abundance of rations? Miscalculation did not count on so much of a lose of life on the front. 3. Who is the narrator? How old is he? Paul Bumer 19 years old 4. What is symbolic about Leers name? Leer means to have a lustful or sly look as does. 5. Why do the men feelLeer hostile toward Ginger? He resists in giving them the extra rations and continually makes them come back from the fighting to get their own food whereas other cooks bring it up to the men at the front. 6. What is Mullers plan for Kemmerichs boots? Do you think this

isplans cruel? Muller to keep Kemmerichs boots for himself. This could be considered cruel because Muller is more concentrated on the boots, but the reality of it is that they see so much death out there, and for Muller to survive, he must look Themes Chapter 1 "The soldier is on friendlier terms than other men with his stomach and intestines. Three-quarters of his vocabulary is derived from these regions, and they give an intimate flavour to expressions of his greatest joy as well as of his deepest indignation. It is impossible to express oneself in any other way so clearly and pithily. Our families and our teachers will be shocked when we go home, but here it is the universal language." Loss of Innocen ce Truths of War Death Theme s Hopes, Dreams , Plans

Primitiven ess Sacrific e Themes Chapter 1 "The wisest were just the poor and simple people. They knew the war to be a misfortune, whereas those who were better off, and should have been able to see more clearly what the consequences would be, were beside themselves with joy. Katczinsky said that was a result of their upbringing. It made them stupid. And what Kat said, he had thought about." Loss of Innocen ce Truths of War Death Theme s Hopes, Dreams

, Plans Primitiven ess Sacrific e Chapter 2 Questions preview Chapter 2 1. Why does Paul refer to his generation as a waste land? Because they have left the connections of their families without making new families or aspirations. The time of their life that is supposed to be formed through experiences of love, family, and success has only been tainted by war. 2. Who is Corporal Himmelstoss? He is the leader of No.9 platoon in which all of the boys/men previously described are stationed. In civilian life, he was a postman, and he often gives Tjaden and Paul a hard time/extra ridiculous commands to complete. 3. What prejudice does Paul have against small men? Why? Paul does not like small men because he believes that they try to make up for their lack in size with the power that they are given. They wield the power in a very unhealthy way, taking out their lifetime of feeling small on those who arent weak and small as they are. 4. How do Paul and Kropp get revenge on Himmelstoss? They wait until the end of their training, and then they wait to

attack him as he leaves a bar one night. Because he is drunk and distracted by his own singing, Himmelstoss does not see Chapter 2 Questions 5. According to Paul, what is the finest thing to arise from the war? COMERADESHIP 6. What makes Kemmerichs death so personal for Paul? They grew up together. 7. What is significant about Kemmerichs telling Paul to take the boots for Muller? It shows that Kemmerich understands that he is going to die, and that Muller meant no harm in asking for the boots, it is merely a necessity for survival on the front. 8. Describe the character of Paul from what you have learned in the first two chapters. He is caring, a loyal friend, marred by what he has found the world to be, brave, survivor, fun(find passages in the first two chapters that support this). 9. Kemmerichs death illustrates part of the central message of the novel. Do you have an idea of what this message is? War destroys innocence, steals life, and concerns itself with nothing, not even the individual. War steals from the innocent and gives to the whole. ETC. Chapter 2 How have the men changed? Kantorek would say that we stood on the threshold of life. And so it would seem. We had as yet taken no root. The war swept us away. For the others, the older men, it is but an interruption. They

are able to think beyond it. We, however, have been gripped by it and do not know what the end may be. We know only that in some strange and melancholy way we have become a waste land. All the same, we are not often sad. (20) Underline Figurative Language above. Circle 1 word per line that relates to Mood below. Word Bank Light-hearted Tense Playful Resigned Confused Violent Enlightened Insidious Optimistic Pessimistic Liberating Confining Warm Cold Hopeful Hopeless Nostalgic Haunting Peaceful

Regretful Welcoming Hostile Harmonious Ambivalent Bitter Foreboding Awkward Painful Journal: Which poster is the most effective? Why? Chapter 3 1. Why is it ironic that Paul and his comrades refer to themselves as stone-age veterans when they compare themselves to the new recruits? They are only about a year older and only a few months more on the front than the new recruits. 2. Describe Katczinsky. What is his special talent?. He is very street smart. In civilian life he is a cobbler, but understands most trades. Special Talent = He can find food anywhere. Chapter 3 3. What is Kats philosophy of war? hat is Kropps

philosophy of war? That the hierarchical organization (and pay) of the army drags the war on unnecessarily (see the rhyme on pg. 41). That if you could just set the two leaders to fighting and then declare the winners country the winner of the war, war would be more just because the right people would do the fighting. 4. What is Kropps philosophy concerning power given to insignificant men? That since they are insignificant, when they get power, they abuse it. Chapter 3 5. Who is coming to the front? Why do these men strongly anticipate his arrival? Himmelstoss. Because of the way that he mistreated them in the barracks especially the bed-wetter - Tjaden. VS. Chapter 4 Why are Paul and his comrades sent to the front? They are back up. How do the men change as they approach the

front?. Why is this change necessary? They get more and more fidgety (especially the new recruits), more serious. They need to get more serious, more aware of the danger of the front, more concentrated. Chapter 4 How do Paul and his comrades manage to save themselves from the shelling? From the gas attack? They dive into a hole that has been created by being shelled, but they end up next to corpses because they are in a graveyard. By helping each other to put on their gas masks (especially the recruits). . What happens to the young soldier that Paul helped at the beginning of the chapter? What do Paul and Kat wish to do for him? Why dont they do it? He gets injured when a coffin lands on top of him after it is blown up by shelling. To put him out of his misery shoot him, just as Detering wanted to do to the horses (again emphasizes the loss of their humanity and animal instincts). Others begin to gather around as they appear from the trenches. Chapter 5 1. Why, cant the men get rid of their lice? Because they have hundreds on each of

their heads. 2. Why has Himmelstoss been sent to the front? Because he overdid his lessons of a few young recruits, and the son of the local magistrate saw and reported him. Chapter 5 3. How do the men treat Himmeistoss? They dont show him any respect. In fact, they are very disrespectful. 4. How does Tjaden get in trouble with Himmelstoss? He treats him as any other soldier, not a superior. He calls him a dirty hound. Because Paul tells the story of the bed-wetting torture. Chapter 5 5. What dreams do the various members of the group have about going home? What do their dreams tell you about their characters? been and may be though it will be marred Paul talks about all of them having a private business and then living in the woods together, and he decides that he wants to do something worth them having had to go through what they are on the front now; Kropp doesnt want to do anything because he knows he will die one day anyway. .. now they cant even bear to imagine a real

future separate from the warnow they cant even bear to 6. What feelings does Paul express while he and Kat imagine a real future separate from the war are roasting the goose? Out of what do these feelings grow? That he is the closest to this man out of anyone on the earth at this point. Loneliness and the bond of experience here on the front. Chapter 6 1. Why do the men joke about death? They see coffins newly made and lined up against a schoolhouse that are clearly made for any of them that get killed in battle they must joke or they could go crazy with fear and anticipation. 2. Why, according to Paul, must every man believe in Chance and trust his luck? Because he overdid his lessons of a few young recruits, and the son of the local magistrate saw and reported him. Chapter 6 3. Describe the mens battle with the rats. They lure the fat rats out with gnawed pieces of bread and then fry them with their pocket torches. Then they throw the dead rats over the

wall and wait to strike again. 4 How do the men know they are really cut off from all help when they are being attacked? Because the barrage is so heavy that they know that if anyone tried to get through the line, that they would get killed. Chapter 6 5. What often happens to the young recruits during an attack? Why are so many killed? They freeze and cannot fight. They simply cower in a corner. Also, they are listening so intently for the big bombing sounds that they miss the slight whistle of a shot coming straight for them. They have not developed the instinct that their seasoned companions have. 6. To what level are the men reduced during an attack? What is the most important thing to them? They become wild beasts. Defending themselves against annihilation. They are greedy for life. Chapter 6 7. Describe the night the men spend listening to the wounded man cry out for help. 8. How does Himmelstoss react in battle?

Himmelstoss in Battle! Quickly I jump back into the dugout and find him with a small scratch lying in a corner pretending to be wounded. His face looks sullen. He is in a panic; he is new to it too. But it makes me mad that the young recruits should be out there and "You lump, will you get out--you he here.hound, you skunk, sneak out of it, would you?" His eye becomes glassy, I knock his head against the wall--"You cow"--I kick him in the ribs--"You swine"--I push him toward the door and shove him out head first. Chapter 6 8. Describe the scene in the field after the battle is over. What do the men see? How many men did the company lose? Chapter 7 Literary Analysis Sketch Image Sketch- Chapter 7 contains vivid details about the setting. As you read chapter 7, choose a setting from the list below to draw. Check the setting you will sketch in this chapter:

___The description of the houses by the canal. ____The description of the landscape becoming familiar from the train. ____The smooth meadows ____The description of the streaming sun and the field. ____The street-crossing. ____The view from the bridge. ____The description of the beer garden. ____The description of Pauls room. Notes about setting from text: Chapter 8 1. Why do the soldiers at the camp on the moor become so close to nature? Because they feel so alone. Being alone causes them to be quiet and observe and appreciate nature. Nature is safe companionship that cannot die. Even if seems die, it is only for a season. 2.she Describe theto Russian prisoners.

Why does Paul feel sorry for them? They seem nervous and afraid and go about like beggars taking the scraps from the Germans garbage piles. Paul realizes their humanity. They look just like any of the other peasants in the farmland of Germany. Chapter 8 3. What is wrong with Pauls mother? Why is his father afraid to ask the surgeon how much her operation will Shecost? is dying of cancer. Because he knows that if he asks the doctor, the doctor will automatically assume that Pauls father cannot afford it and thus, will not do the surgery, since he thinks he will not be getting paid. Though they have received some assistance in the past, they cannot anymore because Mother has been ill too long. 4. Why is it hard for Paul to spend time with his He knows that he cannot fix their problems which family? are very real, but he also feels so disconnected from them after being on the front. Literary Word

Chapter 8 Devices Choice Emotion Authors Makes Imagery Purpose You Think Quote This thin, miserable, dirty garbage is the objective of the prisoners. They pick it out of the stinking tins greedily and go off with it under their blouses. It is strange to see these enemies of ours so close up. They have faces that make one think--honest peasant faces, broad foreheads, broad noses, broad mouths, broad hands, and thick hair. They ought to be put to threshing, reaping, and apple picking. They look just as kindly as our own peasants in Friesland. It is distressing to watch their movements, to see them begging for something to eat. They are all rather feeble, for they only get enough nourishment to keep them from starving. Ourselves we have not had sufficient to eat for long enough. They have dysentery; furtively many of them display the blood-stained tails

of their shirts. Their backs, their necks are bent, their knees sag, their heads droop as they stretch out their hands and beg in the few words of German that they know--beg with those soft, deep, War Info Food Shortages As the fighting wore on, all of With little grain available, the participating nations turnips and potatoes were experienced food shortages. used to make krieg (war) In response, bread, and acorns were wartime governments in gathered and ground up to Europe instituted food make coffee. By the winter rationing, which led to long of 19161917, German lines at stores for what little citizens were becoming food was available. In weak and thin, and some Germany, shortages were were dying from starvation. especially severe because the Allies had blockaded How does this relate

German ports. to where we find Paul at the end of chapter 8? War Info Gas The Germans the the firstGermans to use poison gas on a large Many peoplewere thought use of poison gas scale. At the Second Battle of Ypres in April 1915, was barbaric, but the

British and French quickly German soldiers a front-line trenchThe released chlorine developed theirin own gas weapons. most widely gas from more than five pressurized cylinders, used gas, mustard gas,thousand was introduced in mid-1917. timing the and

release with a itwestward-blowing wind. and Odorless colorless, burned the skin, eyes, Chlorine gas,tissues. visible as a greenish-yellow cloud, a respiratory Gas attacks caused at leastisone lung irritant thatduring causesthe extreme paingas in the nose and million deaths war. After

masks were throat and slow Deathby results if the developed, fewsuffocation. men were killed gas, but gas attacks concentrated gas inhaled the for more than a few were still used toisunsettle enemy. minutes. Chapter 9 1) How do the men prepare for the Kaisers visit? Who is the Kaiser? They are issued all new uniforms (to borrow), and there are so many drills and attention to perfection. He is the All-Highest, the

emperor of Germany. 2) The men have a discussion about who starts war What conclusions do they reach? That even if the Kaiser had said no to the war it would have happened because the government is more than one. They also conclude that the French believe that they are in the right just as much as they do. They decide that a war is started because the State (government) is offended by another country. Though they have been told that they are fighting for their fatherland, it is really for the political game that they are fighting, which they really have no vested interest in. Chapter 9 3) What type of damage do trench mortars cause? They can blow you right out of your clothes/in half. 4) What happens to Paul on scouting duty? How is he saved? feeltrenches about hisand comrades? HeHow getsdoes lost he in the looses his sense of direction therefore ending up on the enemy line. ? After

killing Duval, he runs for safety from trench to trench during the cover of night until he finds Kat and Albert. Chapter 9 5) Who is Gerard Duval? How is Paul affected by his . death? Gerard Duval is a printer. Paul talks to the dead man about how he did not want to kill him but only did because he jumped into the trench nearly on top of Paul. He talks to him about how they were only enemies because of the uniforms that they wore. He asks Gerard for forgiveness. Paul vows to help his wife and children. He will write to them (or so he says until he reads their letters and is too stricken by guilt and pain). He vows to be a printer when he returns to civilian life as Gerard was and to live for Gerard and his family alone. War Info Tanks and Trench Warfare The Allies, as well as the British tanks were first used in Germans, designed 1916 at the Battle of new the weapons

to try tolike break the Somme. Looking deadlock of trench warfare. mysterious monsters that The British thought that tank nothing could stop, tanks incited fear in the but warfare would be enemy, the there were too few of them solution. Tanks

could easilyto make a significant impact. roll over barbed wire and Later in thetrenches war, the Allies cross up to launched ten-feet two massive tank attacks. Both wide, clearing the way for attacks used over three advancing infantry. Tanks hundred units and were were proneintobreaking breakdowns, successful through however, and often got stuck

German lines. Great Britain indeployed the mud. almost three thousand heavy tanks between 1916and 1918, while the Germans used Chapter 10 Book Review Psychology and War Connection Coping Mechanism Mechanism When people are under severeExample stressofor dealingin the Novel with Page # with strong negative emotions, they often fall 1) Denial or refusing to recognize an back on emotion or certain problem. coping strategies. Also called defense mechanisms, these strategies may 2) Compensation, or making up for a temporarily a person from painful

weakness in oneprotect area by excelling in situations or thoughts, but they usually do not another. 3) Daydreaming, or inventing work as long-term solutions. Read the definition situations to escape unpleasant facts. of the following coping mechanisms and find two 4) Displacement, or transferring specific examples with page numbers from the emotions from the true source to some text. other thing or person.

5) Rationalization, or making excuses for ones actions or feelings. 6) Regression, or returning to immature behavior to express emotions Chapter 10 Summary Paul Kat, Albert, Mller, The men wait over 5 hours Tjaden, and Detering guard but survive. "the town agradually supply dump. vanishes under They choose a concrete the shells and we lead a cellar to live in it's well charmed life. concrete protected The menwith evacuate

a walls, floor beds,of and German village civilians. furnishings. The men find and cook baby pigs, but the smoke from cooking is spotted by enemy balloons. Chapter 10 Summary We are marching in column; the French certainly will not fire on a town in which there are still inhabitants. But a few minutes later the air screams, the earth heaves, cries ring out; a shell has landed among our rear squad. We scatter and fling ourselves down on the ground, but at that moment I feel the instinctive alertness leave me which hitherto has always made me do unconsciously the right thing under fire; the thought leaps up with a terrible throttling fear: "You are lost"--and the next moment a blow sweeps like a whip over my left leg. I hear Albert cry out; he is beside me. "Quick, up, Albert!" I yell, for we are lying unsheltered in the open field. Chapter 10 Summary

was injured a bit, Paul Paul is going to be sent presumably Alberts leg is amputated. by shrapnel, home because of his and Paulhe is in rehabilitation for is bleeding. injuries but bribes a guard his broken are

and leg. That night, they are taken to send him back to the to Paul is sent to the Front at surgery (which Paul calls front line with Albert. the end of the block").

chapter.Paul chopping "the Paul and Albert spend a has noamount trust inof the surgeons good time at a and is determined bandaging ward. not to (to that. receive "Many achloroform man has said knock out he doesn't Once ahim man is so in there, he

feel the pain),through" even if he never comes has to "crack their skulls." Chapter 11 Literary Devices Word Choice Emotion Makes You Think Quote Six months ago he would not have cared, he would have been reasonable. We try to prevent him. Then, as he goes off grimly, all we can say is: "You're mad," and let him go. For these cases of front-line madness become dangerous if one is not able to fling the man to the ground and hold him fast. And Berger is six feet and the most powerful man in the company. He is absolutely mad for he has to pass through the barrage;

but this lightning that lowers somewhere above us all has struck him and made him demented. It affects others so that they begin to rave, to run away--there was one man who even tried to dig himself into the ground with hands, feet, and teeth. Imagery Purpose & Tone Chapter 11 Literary Devices Word Choice Emotion Makes You Think Quote The anguish of solitude rises up in me. When Kat is taken away I will not have one friend left. Perhaps we could do something

together later on, Kat." I am very miserable, it is impossible that Kat-Kat my friend, Kat with the drooping shoulders and the poor, thin moustache, Kat, whom I know as I know no other man, Kat with whom I have shared these years--it is Imagery Purpose & Tone Chapter 11 Comic Divide you page up into 5 different comic blocks. You must include: 1) Details about setting 2) The fates of A)Detering, B) Berger, C) Muller, D) Bertnick, and Leer, E)Kat 3) Dialogue between some of the characters

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