BROILER MANAGEMENT - Hanya sebuah tulisan...

BROILER MANAGEMENT - Hanya sebuah tulisan...

BROILER MANAGEMENT JIRAWAT SEETHAO CPF Thailand (For Indonesia) Back To The Basic Houses Preparation and Biosecurity Chick Quality and Transportation Feed Quality and Feeder

Water Quality and Drinker Management and Knowledge Good Production CHICK QUALITY Broiler placements should be planned to ensure: Differences in age and/or immune status of parent flocks are minimized.

One parent flock per broiler flock is the ideal. For large farm complexes, one production house could b e considered to be one flock. PREPARATION FOR CHICK ARRIVAL Litter material should be spread evenly to a depth o f 34 in (7.510 cm) and th en levelled and compacted

in the brooding area. The necessary equipment must be assembled in the appropriate configuration. PREPARATION FOR CHICK ARRIVAL Equipment in the house (i.e., feeders, drinkers, heaters and f ans) should be arranged to allo w chicks to maintain body temp erature without dehydration an

d to find feed and water easily. Configuration will depend on the brooding system and on oth er equipment being used. PREPARATION FOR CHICK ARRIVAL Supplementary feeders and drinkers shouldbe pl aced in close proximity to the main systems.

PREPARATION FOR CHICK ARRIVAL Houses should be pre-heated for a sufficient period to achieve target house and litter temperat ures prior to chick arrival. Temperature should be monitored regularly to ensure a uniform environment exists thro ughout the whole brooding area. WATER AND FEED

WATER AND FEED Prior to chick delivery, a final check must be mad e of feed and water avail ability and distribution wi thin the house. WATER AND FEED Drinker lines should be flushed and sanitized prior to b ird arrival.

The water quality, purity, and temperature must be checked in advance. Water should be within the correct temperature range (65 75F; 1824C). WATER AND FEED Contaminated water can spread disease and cause diarrhea, leading to dehydr ation and death in younger

flocks. All chicks must be able to eat and drink immediately on placement in the house. WATER AND FEED Ideally, the chicks should be placed at the farm and provided water and feed i n less than 8 hours from ti me of hatch. Longer delays could lead

to dehydration and chick weight shrinkage. WATER AND FEED If the chicks have been in transport for a long period (3 hrs. up), providing water for t he first 3 or 4 hours, and then providing feed is suggested. It is imperative that chicks be encouraged to consume water as soon as possible.

WATER AND FEED add some sort of sweetener substance, like sugar to the water (4% solution) for the fi rst few hours of life. The sugar helps to replenish the depleted energy in the chicks, and may stimulate th e chicks to consume feed. WATER AND FEED

The sweet water can also may loosen up the impacted intestine and prepare the gut l inings for the incoming feed. After the addition of sugar, it is recommended to add a vitamin supplement to the wat er for the first three days of lif e, to boost the chicks' vitality. WATER AND FEED With the exception of water

vaccination time, drinking wate r must be adequately chlorinate d. The chlorine level at the drinker level should be 1PPM-nipple drinkers, 2PPM-plasson drinkers, and 3PPM-trough drinkers WATER AND FEED A newly hatched chick is 85% water. When 10% of this water i

s lost, it becomes a cull chick, and when there is 20% dehydra tion, the chick could die. It is important to hydrate the chick adequately and promptly. This will promote feed consumption and better body weights. WATER AND FEED If water and feed are consumed in sufficient amoun

ts and correct brooding temp erature and air quality are pr ovided, A broiler chick should be able to quadruple(4x) the postDOC weight =40g hatch body by seven d ays of age. 7 Days=160g

WATER AND FEED To monitor if chicks are consuming adequ ate feed, it is recommended to select chicks and palpate their crop s. The crops should be quite full.

How to achieve 4x body weight 1 Proper Feed Allocation X X OK How to achieve 4x body weight

2.Light Intensity at lease 20 lug at feeder level X How to achieve 4x body weight 3. Water available all time How to achieve 4x body weight 4.Temperature adjust

properly How to achieve 4x body weight 5.Ventilation WATER AND FEED If the crop feels half empty or empty, there must be something wrong in the management, and the abov e-discussed points must be revie

wed very carefully. It is never too late to act and make corrections, but a problem must be detected before it can be corrected. WATER AND FEED Supplemental feeders should be filled and place d in the brooding area in a proper ratio (e.g. with b ox lids 1/100 chicks).

CHICK PLACEMENT If the mixing of chicks from different age breeder flocks is unavoidable, chicks should be gro uped by breeder age as much as p ossible Ensure light intensity and duration are set prior to chick arrival (2.5 foot candles / 25 lux; 23 hr). CHICK PLACEMENT

Expected delivery time of chicks should be estab lished so they may be unl oaded and correctly plac ed as quickly as possible. CHICK PLACEMENT The longer chicks are in transport boxes, the great er the degree of dehydrati on. This may result in early

mortality and reduced gro wth potential. Normal Mortality Dehydration Mortality CHICK PLACEMENT Chicks must be tipped quickly, gently and evenl y over the brooding area. Empty boxes should be

removed from the house as soon as possible. CHICK PLACEMENT Chicks should be left to settle for 1 2 hr to become accustomed to their new environment. After this time, a check should be made to see that all chicks have ea sy access to feed and water and th at chicks are active. Adjustments should be made to

equipment and temperatures wher e necessary. CHICK PLACEMENT These checks should be made every 46 hr after placement for the first 24 hr. From two to three days of age, existing feeders and drinkers should be repositioned and adjust ed and additional ones introduce d as the illuminated area is increa

sed. CHICK PLACEMENT During the early brooding period, feed should be provided in crumble form on supplem ental feeders (1/100 chic ks) so chicks have easy a ccess. CHICK PLACEMENT

Mechanical feeders should also be charged before arrival. Remove 1/3 of the supplemental feeders on each of days 8, 9 and 10. Chicks should be gradually trained to the main feeding system within the first 10 days o f placement. BROODING MANAGEMENT

THE CRITICAL POINT BROODER MANAGEMENT The objective of proper brooding is to develop app etite as early as possible. Feed intake will be reduced if chicks are kept at temperatures greater th an those appearing in

Table 2.2 BROODER MANAGEMENT (Ross2003) mperature at RH of 60%. See also Table 2.3, BROODER MANAGEMENT Two basic practices for brooding broilers are:

Spot brooding Whole/partial house brooding Both systems are effective in getting chicks off to a good start if managed prope rly. Brooding BROODER

MANAGEMENT Brooder guards may be employed to assist in contro lling early chick movement. The contained area should be expanded from three days of age until finally rem oved by five to seven days. BROODER MANAGEMENT Chicks should be placed

evenly throughout the broodin g area. The use of stirring fans will enhance air quality and uniformity of temperature and RH. Refer to Figure 2.1 for typical spot brooding layout. BROODER MANAGEMENT

BROODER MANAGEMENT Heat is provided by conventional canopy broode rs. For maximum effectiveness, brooder guards should be used to keep birds confined to the desired area of heat, f eed and water. BROODER

MANAGEMENT In spot brooding, a temperature gradient is p rovided ( Table 2.2 ). BROODER MANAGEMENT (Ross2003) mperature at RH of 60%. See also Table 2.3, Arbor Acre

AVIAN COBB 500 Brooding Temperature BROODER MANAGEMENT For whole/partial house brooding measured at feed and water sources; For spot brooding, measured at

brooder edge. Assumes RH of 60%. Recommended temperatures will increase or decrease relative to ambient RH. See Table 2.3 BROODER MANAGEMENT (Ross2003) BROODER MANAGEMENT Chick behavior is the best

indicator of correct broode r temperature. With spot brooding, correct temperature is indi cated by chicks being eve nly spread throughout the brooding area (Figure 2.2). BROODER MANAGEMENT VENTILATION

VENTILATION Air quality is critical during the brooding period. Ventilation is required during the brooding period to maintain temperatures at the targeted level and to allow sufficient air exchang e to prevent the accumulation of h armful gases such as carbon mono xide, carbon dioxide and ammonia.

Harmful Gas VENTILATION Establishing minimum ventilation rates from one da y of age will ensure fresh air is supplied to chicks at frequ ent, regular intervals. Stirring fans can be used to maintain evenness of air qua lity at chick level.

LIGHTING LIGHTING Historically, lighting programs have consisted of continuous light regimens to maximize daily weight gain. These regimens consist of a long continuous period of light, followed by a short dark period (e.g. 0.51 h r) to allow birds to become accusto med to darkness in the event of a

power failure. LIGHTING Other lighting programs have been devised to modify growth, minimize FCR or reduce mortality. To stimulate early feed intake, any lighting program should provide a long day length (e.g. 23 hr light) and adequate intensity fo r the first seven days.

LIGHTING Light intensity at placement should be 22.5 foot candles (2025 lux) at the feeder level, t hen be gradually reduced so that by 28 days it is approximately 0. 300.50 foot candles (35 lux). Light intensity should be uniform throughout the house. Lighting Program - AA

Hubbard classic and Hi-Y MONITORING EARLY CHICK PERFORMANCE MONITORING EARLY CHICK PERFORMANCE As a result of continued genetic gains in growth rate, brooding has becom

e an increasingly greater proportion of the life of th e flock. In addition, MONITORING EARLY CHICK PERFORMANCE Seven-day body weight is highly correlated to market age weight. It is strongly recommended that a sample of each flock be weighed at seven days to evalu

ate growth performance agains t standards for the given produ ct. MONITORING EARLY CHICK PERFORMANCE Scales used should be capable of weighing in 1 g increments. Minimum sample size should be 1 percent of the flock, With sampling done in at least three separate areas of the

house. Refer to the attachments for product weight objectives. MONITORING EARLY CHICK PERFORMANCE A general rule of thumb would be a seven-day target of 4x dayold chick weight. Average weights below 130 g should prompt investigatio n as to causative reasons.

Seven days weight below 1g release 6g at 42 days. RELATIVE HUMIDITY HUMIDITY Relative humidity (RH) in the hatcher, at the end of the incubation process will be high (approx. 80 percent). Houses with whole house heating, especially where

nipple drinkers are used, can h ave RH levels as low as 25 perc ent. HUMIDITY Houses with more conventional equipment (i.e., spot brooders, which produce moisture as a byproduct of co mbustion and bell drinkers, w hich have open water surface s) have a much higher RH (us

ually over 50 percent). HUMIDITY To limit the shock to the chicks of transfer from the incubator, RH levels in the first three days should be mai ntained near 70 percent. HUMIDITY RH within the broiler house should

be monitored daily. If it falls below 50 percent in the first week, chicks will begin to dehydrate, Causing negative effects on performance. In such cases, action should be taken to increase RH. HUMIDITY If the house is fitted with highpressure spray nozzles (i.e.,foggers) for cooling in high te mperatures, then these can be use

d to increase RH during brooding. Chicks kept at appropriate humidity levels are less prone to dehydration and generally make a better, more uniform start. HUMIDITY As the chick grows, ideal RH falls. High RH from 18 days onward can cause wet litter and its associated problems.

As broilers increase in live weight, RH levels can be controlled using ventilation and heating systems. INTERACTION BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY Chickens lose heat to the environment by evaporation of moisture primarily from the respirat ory tract.

At high RH, less evaporative loss occurs increasing the birdsapparent temperature. The temperature experienced by the birds is dependent on the dry bu lb temperature and RH. INTERACTION BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY High RH increases the apparent temperature at a pa

rticular dry bulb temperature, Whereas low RH decreases apparent temperature. The temperature profile in Table 2.2, assumes RH in the range of 60 percent. Heat Stress Index Calculation %RH Temperature C

o 35.0 34.4 33.9 33.3 32.8 32.2 31.7 31.1 30.6

30.0 29.4 28.9 40 37. 2 36. 1 35. 0 34.

4 33. 3 32. 8 31. 7 31. 1 30. 6 29.

4 28. 9 28. 3 27. 45 38. 9 37. 8

36. 7 35. 6 34. 4 33. 3 32. 8 31. 7

31. 1 30. 6 29. 4 28. 9 28. 50 40.

6 39. 4 38. 3 37. 2 36. 1 35. 0 33.

9 32. 8 31. 7 31. 1 30. 0 29. 4 28.

55 42. 8 41. 1 40. 0 38. 3 37. 2

36. 1 35. 0 33. 9 32. 8 31. 7 31. 1

30. 0 29. 60 45. 0 43. 3 41. 7 40.

6 38. 9 37. 8 36. 1 35. 0 33. 9 32.

8 31. 7 31. 1 30. 65 47. 8 45. 6

43. 9 42. 2 40. 6 39. 4 37. 8 36. 7

35. 0 33. 9 32. 8 31. 7 30. 70 50.

6 48. 3 46. 7 44. 4 42. 8 41. 1 39.

4 37. 8 36. 7 35. 0 33. 9 32. 2 31.

75 53. 3 51. 1 48. 9 46. 7 45. 0

42. 8 41. 1 39. 4 37. 8 36. 1 35. 0

33. 3 31. 80 56. 7 53. 9 51. 7 49.

4 47. 2 45. 0 43. 3 41. 1 39. 4 37.

8 36. 1 34. 4 32. 85 60. 0 57. 2

54. 4 52. 2 50. 0 47. 2 45. 0 43. 3

41. 1 38. 9 37. 2 35. 6 33. 90 63.

9 60. 6 57. 8 55. 0 52. 2 50. 0 47.

2 45. 0 42. 8 40. 6 38. 9 36. 7 35.

95 67. 8 64. 4 61. 1 58. 3 55. 6

52. 8 50. 0 47. 2 45. 0 42. 2 40. 0

37. 8 36. 10 0 71. 7 68. 3 65. 0

61. 7 58. 3 55. 6 52. 2 49. 4 46. 7

44. 4 41. 7 39. 4 37. INTERACTION BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY Table 2.3 shows the predicted

dry bulb temperature required to achieve the target temperat ure profile over a range of RH. The information in Table 2.3 can be used in situations where RH varies from the target range (60 percent). INTERACTION BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY If RH is outside the target range,

the temperature of the house at chick level can be adjusted to match that given in Table 2.3. At all stages, chick behavior should be monitored to ensure chicks are experiencing an adeq uate temperature. INTERACTION BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY

If subsequent behavior indicates chicks are too cold or too hot, the house temperature should be adjusted appropriately. Conclusion Before chicks arrive, inspect the house closely t o ensure proper setup. After a poor start, there is

little time to compensate for the lost growth as a chi ck's life is only approximat ely 1000 hours. Conclusion Thus, every hour represents 0.10% of the chick's life. In a 24-hour period, 2.4% perform ance can be lost. Many producers recognize that performance lost the first

day or first week will be reflec ted in final performance result s. HEAT STRESS HEAT STRESS Heat stress negatively affects growth rate and liv ability. Effects of heat stress can be minimized by altering

the environment to reduce the temperature experienced by the bird. CONTROL OF HEAT STRESS Normal body temperature of a broiler chicken is 106F (41C). Absolute temperature at which a broiler is under heat stress is related to its age, temperature

and RH. As a rule of thumb, for fully feathered birds, a heat stress index (RH p lus temperature in F) of 160 is considere d heat stress. CONTROL OF HEAT STRESS The longer the exposure to high temperatures, the greater the stress and its

effects. (See Figure 2.8). CONTROL OF HEAT STRESS CONTROL OF HEAT STRESS Broilers regulate their body temperature by two methods: radiation/convection of heat and evaporative cooling through respiration.

Within the temperature range 5577F (1325C), heat loss is mainly accomplished through physical radiation and convection to the cooler environment . CONTROL OF HEAT STRESS As the temperature rises above 86F (30C) the majority of heat loss is accomplished by evapor ative cooling and panting, and i

ncreased respiration rate. The relationship between the two types of heat loss and environmental temperature is ill ustrated in Table 2.4. CONTROL OF HEAT STRESS CONTROL OF HEAT STRESS Panting allows the bird to control body

temperature by evaporation of water fro m the respiratory surfaces and air sacs. The process uses energy. In conditions of high humidity, panting is less effectiv e. Where high temperatures are maintained for long periods, or humidity is very high, panting may be insufficient to control body temperature and the bir d may experience heat stress. CONTROL OF HEAT

STRESS As the bird passes into a condition of heat stress, rectal temperature rises, heart rate and metabolic rate increase and oxygen ation of the blood decrea ses. ACTIONS TO REDUCE HEAT STRESS Lowering stocking density will

reduce temperature experienced by the bird. Birds lose heat by evaporation of moisture during panting and therefore require increased amounts of drinking water. Adequate fresh water should be available at all times. Insulation of storage tanks and water pipes will help reduce heat stress.

ACTIONS TO REDUCE HEAT STRESS Digestion generates heat; therefore, feeding during the hottest part of the day should be avoided in open-sided hous ing. A significant amount of heat is lost by convection and, at high humidity, convective heat loss becomes more important.

ACTIONS TO REDUCE HEAT STRESS Increasing the air flow over the bird promotes heat loss by convection. An air flow of at least 500 ft/min (152 m/min), measured just above bird le vel, provides optimum heat l oss by convection. ACTIONS TO REDUCE

HEAT STRESS In open-sided housing, this can be achieved by using supplemental, 36 in (91 cm) fan s, placed at an angle of 32, ev ery 33 ft (10 m) across the hous e. Fans should be set to move air in the same direction as the prevailing wind. ACTIONS TO REDUCE

HEAT STRESS High humidity reduces the effectiveness of evaporative heat loss. The litter is a significant source of moisture in the c hicken house, so litter con dition should be managed carefully. ACTIONS TO REDUCE HEAT STRESS

Radiant heat from the sun will increase house temperature, particularly if roof insulation is inadeq uate. Water sprinklers on the roof ridge will reduce this source of heat. ACTIONS TO REDUCE HEAT STRESS In open-sided houses, plastic

netting hung from the eaves to cover 30 percent of the op en area may be used as a scr een against radiant heat. Install tunnel ventilation and evaporative cooling systems. ACTIONS TO REDUCE HEAT STRESS Refer to AviaTech bulletin on Getting Broiler Houses Ready fo

r Hot Weather (Vol I No 3). NUTRITION AND HEAT STRESS Risks of feed spoilage due to mold growth and/ or vitamin loss are increa sed at high temperatures . Feed storage time should be minimized.

NUTRITION AND HEAT STRESS The two main changes which can be made to diet compositi on to partially compensate for heat stress are: Adjustment of nutrient levels to take account of lower feed i ntake Reduction of heat increment of the feed

NUTRITION AND HEAT STRESS Increasing feed nutrient density will be effective in reducing heat stress providing the birds have the capacity to respond b y increased growth. The effectiveness of this treatment will depend on the te mperature and the amount of st ress experienced by the birds.

NUTRITION AND HEAT STRESS As an approximate guide, feed intake is reduced by 5 percent per degree temper ature rise between 90 and 100F (32 and 38C) comp ared with 1 percent to1.5 p ercent between 68 and 86 F (20 and 30C).

NUTRITION AND HEAT STRESS If feed intake is down by 5 percent or 10 percent, then the nutrient concentration should b e increased in proportion. It is particularly important to adjust the amino acid, vitamin and mineral fractions of the fee d. NUTRITION AND

HEAT STRESS An increase in amino acid levels may be beneficial if feed intake is reduced due to high a mbient temperatures. Excess protein is broken down and eliminated from the bird by deamination and excretion, pro cesses which have a high heat i ncrement. NUTRITION AND

HEAT STRESS Under all circumstances of heat stress, amino acid requirements should be met at the lowest pos sible total protein content. Sources of high quality protein and synthetic amino acids will help to achieve this aim. NUTRITION AND HEAT STRESS

In addition to minimizing protein excess, the heat increment of the feed may be r educed by substituting good q uality fat for carbohydrate. Fat inclusion may also stimulate intake and, under some circumstances, give a be neficial boost to energy intake. NUTRITION AND HEAT STRESS

Birds suffering heat stress exhibit reduced lev els of plasma carbon diox ide and bicarbonate. NUTRITION AND HEAT STRESS Panting induces respiratory alkalosis, which may be corrected by a variety of supple ments to either the feed or the water (e.g. sodium bicarbonate).

There is also a loss of potassium by birds suffering heat stress, which may be corrected by admi nistration of potassium chloride. CATCHING CATCHING AND LIVE HAUL OBJECTIVE To manage the final phase of the production process so tha

t broilers are transferred to th e processing plant in optimu m condition, ensuring the pro cessing requirements are met and humane treatment is mai ntained. PREPARATION FOR CATCHING When using lighting programs, it is essential to return to 23 hr of light

at least two to four days prior to depletion. PREPARATION FOR CATCHING This will ensure the birds are calm during catching. A withdrawal ration must be fed in accordance with local legal regulations prior to slaughter to eliminate th e risk of controlled feed ad

ditive residues in the meat. PREPARATION FOR CATCHING Feed should be withdrawn 810 hr before processing. This period should include catching, transport and holding time.

PREPARATION FOR CATCHING If feed withdrawal time is prolonged, water absorbed from body tissues accumulates in the digestive tract resulting in reduced yield. Fecal contamination may also be increased. PREPARATION FOR

CATCHING Unlimited access to water should be available for as long as possible prior to catching to reduce shrink l oss. Prior to catching, all feeding equipment should be raised above head height of the catching person nel (i.e., >6 ft, 2 m), removed from the house or positioned to avoid ob struction to birds or personnel.

PREPARATION FOR CATCHING In larger houses, separation of birds into pens will avoid unnecessary crowding. It will also allow access to water for birds not immediately due for catching. PREPARATION FOR

CATCHING High humidity reduces the effectiveness of evaporative heat loss. The litter is a significant source of moisture in the chicken house, so litter co ndition should be manage d carefully. PREPARATION FOR CATCHING

Light intensity within the house must be reduced to a minimum, but must be sufficient to allow safe and careful catching. PREPARATION FOR CATCHING Blue light has been found to be satisfactory for this purpose. The best results are achieved

when birds are allowed to settle after lights have been dimmed and when there is mi nimal disturbance. PREPARATION FOR CATCHING The use of curtains over main doors of the house is helpful when catching during daylight hours.

PREPARATION FOR CATCHING The opening of doors and removal of birds will affect ventilation of thermostatically controlled environments. The ventilation system should be monitored and adju sted carefully throughout the catching procedure. CATCHING AND

HAULING Most downgrading observed at slaughter will have occurred during the previous 24 hours w hen birds were being caught an d handled. Catching is an operation which should be planned carefully in a dvance and supervised closely at all stages. CATCHING AND

HAULING Handling of birds must be carried out by appropriately trained, competent personnel in ord er to avoid unnecessary str uggling by the birds to mini mize bruising, scratching or other injuries. CATCHING AND HAULING

Broilers should be held by their feet and shanks, never by their thighs. They should be caught and held by both legs to minimize distress, damage and injury. Birds should be placed carefully into modules or crates. CATCHING AND HAULING Modules have been

shown to result in less distress and damage than conventional crates. Crates or modules should never be overfilled. CATCHING AND HAULING The number of broilers per crate or module must be reduced in high tempe

ratures. Transport time should be within current guidelines or regulations. CATCHING AND HAULING At all times, from loading to the holding sheds, adequate protection from the elements is es sential. Ventilation, extra heating and/or

cooling should be used when necessary. Bird stress will be minimized in trailers designed to provide adequate ventilation. CATCHING AND HAULING Heat stress will develop rapidly when the transport vehicle is stationary, particularly if on-bo ard ventilation is not available o

r in hot weather. Vehicles should leave the farm as soon as loading is completed. Supplementary ventilation in the holding sheds should be available to inimize heat stress.

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