Botany Review Kingdom Plantae General Characteristics
Contain Chlorophyll a Multicellular Made up of Eukaryotic Cells Photosynthetic Autotrophs Cell Walls made of Cellulose (polysaccharide)
Produce sugars as glucose, transport sugars as sucrose and store sugars as starch (a polysaccharide). Review of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use the energy of sunlight to combine carbon dioxide and water to form glucose and oxygen. Light Energy + 6CO2 + 6H20
Reactants C6H12O6 + 6O2 Products Factors that Affect Photosynthesis
Amount of available Sunlight Amount of available Water (rainfall) Amount of Carbon Dioxide Optimal Temperatures Adaptations plants made to survive on land
Developed Cuticles waxy, protective outer coverings which prevent water loss. Developed vascular tissues for transportation of water and sugars. Developed spores/seeds for reproduction. Developed tissues to strengthen stems to overcome gravity. The Classification of Plants
Bryophytes are described as plants that lack xylem and phloem (vascular tissue) Tracheophytes are plants that have xylem and phloem (vascular tissue) Xylem is a type of vascular tissue that transports water upward from the roots to the leaves. Phloem is a type of vascular tissue that transports
sugars (nutrients) from the leaves downward The Tracheophytes are divide into five groups. The largest of the five groups are the: Non-Seed Bearing Plants And Seed Bearing Plants
The Seed Bearing Plants are divided into two groups: Gymnosperms (naked-seed Plants) and Angiosperms (encased-seed plants)
The Angiosperms are the Flowering Plants. Angiosperms are divided into two groups: Monocotyledons (Monocots) and Dicotyledons (Dicots)
4 Differences between Monocots and Dicots Monocots Leaves parallel veins Petals - multiples of 3 Seeds - one cotyledon Dicots netted veins
multiples of 4 or 5 two cotyledons Vascular tissues in a monocot stem are arranged randomly and look like monkey faces. Vascular tissues in a dicot stem are arranged in a ring surrounding the pith. Venation of Leaves
Monocots venation is parallel Dicots venation is netted Number of Petals Monocots multiples of 3
Dicots multiples of 4 or 5 New Information! Seasonal Adaptations Evergreens plants that remain green year
round. Pine trees Deciduous plants that lose all their leaves all at one time. Apple trees, grapes Short and Long Day Plants Short-day Plants
Flower when the days are shorter than 12 hours like onions, garlic, chrysanthemums Long-day Plants Flower when the days are longer than 12 hours like tomatoes and beans.
Growth Cycles (from seed to seed) Annuals complete their entire life cycle in one growing season. Example: mums Biennials complete their entire life cycle in two growing seasons. Example: Broccoli Perennials continue to grow year after
year. Example: Apple trees can live for 80 years. Stem Types Herbaceous Green, soft. will wilt if water loss is extreme. Sour grass, celery
Woody Brown, rigid. Will remain erect even after they are dead. Trees, roses Tropisms are the responses plants have to stimuli.
A Negative (-) response is away from the stimuli A Positive (+) response is toward to stimuli Phototropism a plants response to light Gravitropism a plants response to gravity Hydrotropism a plants response to water Chemotropism a plants response to chemicals Thigmotropism a plants response to touch
Phototropism a plants response to light Gravitropism - (also called Geotropism) a plants response to gravity A Corn Root responds positively to gravity Thigmotropism
a plants response to touchthe tendrils of a bean plant wraps around a garden post. Plant Hormones Cytokinins stimulate cell division, and promote the germination of dormant seeds Auxins are involved in plant-cell elongation, apical dominance, & rooting
Gibberillins promotes shoot growth, bolting, and seed germination
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