Body Tissues - pdsd.org

Body Tissues - pdsd.org

Agenda 10/2---Day 3 Take 10 minutes to study Cell quiz Finished with Quiz? SSR Collins I 5 lines

Body Tissues A. Tissues 1. Groups of cells with similar structure and function 2. Four primary types a. b. c. d.

Epithelial tissue (epithelium) Connective tissue Muscle tissue Nervous tissue B. Epithelial Tissues . 1. Locations Body coverings Body linings (structures or organs) Glandular tissue

2. Functions Protection Absorption Filtration Secretion

3. Epithelium Characteristics a. Cells fit closely together and often form sheets b. The apical surface is the free surface of the tissue c. The lower surface of the epithelium rests on a basement membrane d. A vascular (no blood supply)

e. Regenerate easily if well nourished 4. Classification of Epithelia a. Number of cell layers Simpleone layer Stratifiedmore than one layer

5. Classification by shape a. Shape of cells Squamous flattened Cuboidal cube-shaped Columnar column-like 6. Simple Epithelia a. Simple squamous

Single layer of flat cells Usually forms membranes Lines body cavities Lines lungs and capillaries Simple Epithelia b Simple cuboidal

Single layer of cube-like cells Common in glands and their ducts Forms walls of kidney tubules Covers the ovaries Simple Epithelia c. Simple

columnar Single layer of tall cells Often includes mucusproducing goblet cells Lines digestive tract

Stratified Epithelia d. Stratified squamous Cells at the apical surface are flattened Found as a protective covering where friction is common Locations

Skin Mouth Esophagus Stratified Epithelia e. Stratified cuboidal two layers of cuboidal cells Both are Rare in human

body f. Stratified columnar columnarsurface cells are columnar, cells underneath vary in size and shape C. Connective Tissue 1. Found everywhere in the body 2. Includes the most

abundant and widely distributed tissues 3. Functions Binds body tissues together Supports the body Provides protection 5. Extracellular matrix Non-living material that surrounds living cells

D. Connective Tissue Types 1. bones 2. Hyaline cartilage 3. Elastic cartilage

4. Fibro cartilage 5. Dense connective tissue (dense fibrous tissue) 6. Loose connective tissue 7. Blood (vascular tissue) 1. Bone (osseous tissue) Composed of Bone cells in lacunae (cavities) Hard matrix of

calcium salts Large numbers of collagen fibers Used to protect and support the body 2. Hyaline cartilage Most common type of cartilage

Composed of Abundant collagen fibers Rubbery matrix Locations Larynx Entire fetal skeleton prior to birth

3. Elastic Cartilage Provides elasticity Location Supports the external ear 4. Fibro cartilage Highly compressible Forms cushion-like

discs between vertebrae 6. Dense connective tissue (dense fibrous tissue) Tendons attach skeletal muscle to bone Ligaments

attach bone to bone at joints Dermislower layers of the skin 7. Loose connective Tissue a. Areolar b. Adipose c. Reticular connective tissue-Bone Marrow

a. Areolar tissue Most widely distributed connective tissue Soft, pliable tissue like cobwebs Functions as a packing tissue Contains all fiber types Can soak up excess fluid (causes edema)

b. Adipose tissue Fat Cells Functions Insulates the body Protects some organs Serves as a site of fuel storage

Blood (vascular tissue) Blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix called blood plasma Fibers are visible during clotting Functions as the transport vehicle for materials 10. Muscle Tissue

a. Function is to produce movement b. Three types Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle a. Skeletal muscle Under voluntary control Contracts to pull on bones or skin Produces gross body movements or facial expressions

Characteristics of skeletal muscle cells Striated Multinucleate(more than one nucleus per cell) Long, cylindrical b. Cardiac muscle

Under involuntary control Found only in the heart Function is to pump blood Characteristics of cardiac muscle cells Cells are attached to other cardiac muscle cells at intercalated disks

Striated One nucleus per cell Cells are branched c. Smooth muscle Under involuntary control Found in walls of hollow organs such as stomach, uterus, and blood vessels

Characteristics of smooth muscle cells No visible striations One nucleus per cell Spindle-shaped cells 9. Nervous Tissue Composed of neurons and nerve support cells Brain and spinal cord is made of nervous tissue

Function is to send impulses to other areas of the body Irritability Conductivity

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