Biology Around Us (Part 1)

Biology Around Us (Part 1)

1 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2008 2 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2008 What is animal testing? Over 3 million animals are used for scientific procedures in the UK every year. These procedures include medical research, such as testing new medicines. Mice, rats and other

rodents are the most commonly used animals approximately 83% of all animals used are rodents. Other animals commonly used include fish and birds. 3 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2008 Why test medical drugs on animals?

In the UK, the law states that any new drug used in medicine must be tested on at least two different types of mammal. Drugs are often tested on human cells; however this cannot recreate the conditions of a whole system or organism. Many mammals have systems that are similar to those of humans, so tests can give early indications of what the drug might do to the human body. 4 of 21

Boardworks Ltd 2008 How has animal testing been used? 5 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2008 Do animals feel pain? All vertebrates have a nervous system. Sensory receptors in the eyes, nose, ears, tongue and skin allow an animal to detect changes in its environment.

If pressure receptors in the skin are stimulated, an electrical impulse is produced, which travels to the brain. This indicates that animals have the physical ability to feel pain. It is thought that some testing procedures can cause pain, fear and stress for animals involved. However, anaesthetics can sometimes be used to minimize the suffering caused. 6 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2008

What type of tests are used? In scientific research, a wide variety of different types of tests are carried out on animals. These can include painful and fatal procedures. Some animals are given drugs that may have harmful or fatal effects. Scientists can breed animals that have harmful genetic mutations, which may result in suffering for the organism. Animals are often killed in order to examine the effects of a procedure on their organs or when the experiment has ended.

7 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2008 What are the ethical and moral implications? There are ethical and moral implications involved in testing on animals for scientific research, including questions such as: Should What Are Is humans be allowed to use animals in this way?

rights should animals have? human needs more important than animal needs? a human life worth more than an animals? What are the arguments for and against continuing to use animals in medical research? 8 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2008

Why is it important to use animals? 9 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2008

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