BIOL 1010 Human Anatomy

BIOL 1010 Human Anatomy

BIOL 1010 Human Anatomy Dr. Joel Gluck Email: [email protected] Cell Phone: 401-952-1345 Why Study Anatomy? 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. Communication within the health professions. In order to understand the pathology of the human body, one must understand the normal. Learn the interaction between body systems. Define the significance between structure and function.

Its Fun. (Personal opinion) Goals of the Course To provide a common anatomical language

To relate the common language of anatomy to the functional morphology of the human body. To provide a baseline of knowledge for the study of physiology. Illustrate the principle that structure and function are related. Why Study Anatomy?

Provides an education rather than training. ie: you can train a monkey to do surgery but the monkey cannot fix a problem when it arises. Terminology allows clear communication between medical professionals. Some definitions

Morphology -form that structures take on. -Morphology affects function Structure -a part of the body. Can either be microscopic (small) or macroscopic (large). Function -refers to physical behavior. What a structure does. -Function is related to

structures=Functional Morphology Normal vs. Abnormal -We must understand the normal situation to be able to compare it with and recognize the abnormal. Topographic Anatomy -Structures on the surface of the skin can be used to identify and locate deeper structures, organs, and tissues beneath the skin.

Structure defines and restricts function. - certain joints can only move in one direction. For example a hinge joint can only have motion perpendicular to the axis of the joint. The knee joint (hinge) cannot have motion in the lateral direction because that goes against the axis. Two Approaches to the Study of Anatomy

Systems Approach -study of one system at a time. -all muscles are studied together, all bones, etc.. Regional Approach -all structures within a certain region are studied together. -ie: all structures in the head are looked at together.

We will utilize the REGIONAL APPROACH. Laboratory Information

Hands on training. Bring lab book, an atlas, and information your instructor tells you. You must supply your own gloves. Dissection kits will be supplied for you. DO NOT CUT ANYTHING! This is blunt dissection. Get a 4 or 5 color pen or a set of colored pencils. YOU MUST PASS BOTH LECTURE AND LAB TO PASS THE COURSE

ANATOMY Study of structure. ANA = apart cut TOMY = to Anatomical Terminology

Superi or Inferi or Anatomical Position This is a reference position that allows for the use of consistent

directional terminology. All descriptions of location are made from within anatomical position. Subject is facing forward with palms forward, thumbs facing to the sides. Anatomical Position This is the position from which all

directions and descriptions are made. The person is standing erect, palms facing Superior TRANSVERSE PLANE Inferior

Body Midline EYES Sagittal Plane Media l Later EARS al

The Extremities have a different set of terms The arm is DISTAL TO THE TRUNK or MIDLINE OF THE BODY The upper arm is PROXIMAL

The eyes are SUPERIOR to the mouth. The mouth is INFERIOR to the eyes. BACK FRONT The gluteus

maximus is POSTERIOR to the umbilicus. C O R O N A L The umbilicus is

ANTERIOR to the gluteus maximus. P IN BACK OF L IN FRONT OF A Also called

DORSAL N E Also called VENTRAL In four legged animals, the head is ANTERIOR to the tail. In two legged animals, the head is SUPERIOR to the tail. In four legged animals, the region

toward the head is CRANIAL. The region toward the tail is CAUDAL. TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE What is the relationship? knee to thigh Nipple to belly button Chin to eyes Little toe to big toe SKIN

SUPERFICIAL toward the surface DEEP away from the surface DIRECTIONAL TERMS FOR MUSCLES ORIGIN attachment of muscle on a fixed point, closest to midline THIGH BONE

(FEMUR) L E G B O N E INSERTION attachment of muscle that is moveable,

farthest from midline. Cardinal Body Planes Cardinal Body Planes Regional Terminology e Note th e nc differe n

betwee d an bipeds ped quadru s. Referenc e Positions Note the synonomous pairs: Dorsal : posterior

Ventral : anterior Organization of the Human Body The body is organized from the smallest part to the largest part. CELL -simplest structural unit -basic unit of life

-smallest unit that can live on its own Tissue - a group of cells with common origin, structure, and function. - cells within a tissue all work toward a common goal (i.e.: movement, nutrition, etc.)

Organ - a group of tissues that have a common function. Organ System - a group of organs with a special function. - Digestive System, Nervous System, etc Organism - A group of organ systems that at some

point in time is capable of sustaining life. - All organ systems work together in an organism.

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