Anomers? What is the Enantiomer of D-Erythrose? D-Ketose Sugar Configurations Carbonyl carbon (blue) is the anomeric carbon that generates two anomeric forms in the cyclic structure
Anomeric carbon switches between an achiral and chiral form Pyanose Formation by Intramolecular Linkage Furanose Formation by Intramolecular Linkage
Numbering via anomeric-carbon identification? Fructose Isomers Anomeric Carbon Alpha hydroxyl down Beta hydroxyl up Isomer Options Constitutional or
Stereo-isomers? Enantiomers or diastereoisomers? Epimers or anomers? Carbohydrate Isomeric Forms H
Pictorial Representations of Glucose Cyclic form Haworth project and chair configuration Linear form Fisher projection Most abundant natural form? Why is only one configuration the most abundant form?
Corn Syrup and Honey Rich in Fructose Does this isomeric exactness really matter for enjoying life? Perceived as highly sweet
Perceived as mildly sweet Reducing Sugars - Reactive Aldehydes The protein modification referred to as advanced glycosylation end products (AGE) is implicated in aging, arteriosclerosis and diabetes Hemoglobin glycosylation
is a high bloodsugar marker Experiment Benedicts reagent Observation Inference
Test solution + Benedict's Red ppt or green ppt or reagent; boil & cool. yellow ppt obtained Reducing sugar e.g. Glucose is present Test solution + Benedict's
Solution remains clear reagent; boil & cool. Non-reducing sugar e.g. Sucrose is present Disaccharide Biosynthesis via Glycosyltransferase Reaction
Alpha and Beta Assignments for Anomeric Carbons Only Why is frucofuranosyl labeled in a beta configuration?
Flipping a Box Upright On Its Legs Legs up shift to down Leg left shifts to right Left peg up stays up Legs in front stay front Cellulose Straight Chains -1,4 Linkage
Plant fiberforming structural polymer Most abundant organic compound in nature Dietary fiber; not digested except by bacteria
Glycogen and Starch Bent Chain -1,4-Linkage Homopolymer for glucose storage Muscle/liver glycogen rich; 1,6 branched linkage (1 in 10) Plant tissue
with amylose (unbranched) & amylopectin (1 in 30 branching) Glycoproteins Carbohydrates Attached to Proteins More protein than
carbohydrate N-linked via Asn or O-linked via Ser or Thr Chemical signature for protein or whole cell surfaces Glycosylation of Extracellular Proteins Red blood cell stimulatory
hormone: erythropoietin (EPO) Glycosylation enhances stability Endurance athletes illegally use to increase oxygencarrying capacity EPO spiking-detection based on glycosylation patterns
Modified Saccharides N- O- C-glycosidic linkages Increase biochemical versatility (e.g. chemical signaling) Glycosaminoglycan Structural Units Chitin: N-acetylglucosamine homopolymer Present in insect, crustacean, and arachnid exoskeleton
Second most abundant polysaccharide in nature Glycosaminoglycan Heteropolymers Glucosamine/galactosamine amino sugar derivatives Repeating disaccharide units with negatively charged group
Proteoglycans Polysaccharides & Proteins Lubricants , structural components, and cell adhesion Cartilage collagen (strength) and agrecans (shock absorber) More polysaccharide than protein Chapter 11 Problems: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, 15, 17, 19, 27 and 31
ABC Insurance Company insures 1,000 eighteen year old drivers. Assume 300 of the 1,000 have accidents within a year. Assume the average repair cost for each accident is $500. AUTO PRICING 101. QUESTION: WHAT IS THE MINIMUM PREMIUM THAT ABC...
The Outstanding Teaching Award Committee Announced Winners. Awards Ceremony will be November 28 at 3:00 in St. Pat's B, Havener Center. Alumna & Women Student of the Year Award Ceremony was held on October 11.
The Senior Citizens Housing act set up loans for low-rent apartment projects designed to meet the needs of people age 62 and over. (This type of housing was acutely lacking in rural communities.) The MFH Program eventually began during the...
Basic needs like shelter and food. What Relationships Provide. Name 2-4 things about this person you really like. Name 3 things this person is interested in besides you. Name 3 activities you can be involved in without this person.
3) Find the carrier density vs. position by beginning where it is known, and then exponentially increasing or decreasing it according to the local EC(x). To read an E-band diagram: Energy band diagrams Lundstrom: Fall 2019 * Band bending and...
Redundancy Principle? The suggested order of play is to begin with the . game instructions, learn about the . redundancy principle, take the . quiz, then finish with the . final challenge. Use the navigation buttons at the bottom of...
Phases of the Moon *Take Notes from this PowerPoint in T-Chart/Cornell Notes format in your journal. What's in yellow is the main idea and details are in white. Once you finish go to EduSmart and complete the assigned lessons. *
June 21, 2005. The ringleader of the Mississippi civil rights murders, Edgar Ray Killen, is convicted of manslaughter on the 41st anniversary of the crimes. October 24, 2005. Rosa Parks dies at age 92. January 30, 2006. Coretta Scott King...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!