Aviation Weather Reports Weather Briefings How to Obtain Phone: 1-800-WX-BRIEF DUATS: www.duats.com www.1800wxbrief.com (replacing DUATS) Various websites
3 Types Standard: a complete briefing to be obtained before every flight, especially when departing soon Outlook: provided when it is 6 or more hours before proposed departure time Such as for the following morning Abbreviated: used to update a previous briefing & to supplement mass disseminated data Weather Briefings-Phone Initially identify yourself as the pilot State whether the flight is IFR or VFR When telephoning pilots should initially state the
intended route of flight & destination State the aircraft N-number or pilots name Weather Briefings-Phone What to say: I would like to get a standard briefing for a VFR flight from to to at (altitude), in a (type of aircraft), N , departing (time) Z, time in route (hours, minutes).
Direct User Access Terminal System DUATS for short Used to conduct complete weather briefings Access through a personal computer Can also file, amend, or cancel flight plans Aviation Routine Weather Report METARRoutine Weather Report SPECInonroutine weather report Link to Abbreviations http://www.moratech.com/aviation/metaf-abbrev.html ICAO Station Identifier In the 48 states, three letter identifier is prefixed
with a K KBPK KABQ KSGF Alaska and Hawaii starts with P followed by an A or H PHNL In Canada the prefixes are CU, CW, CY, & CZ Modifier
AUTO Identifies the report as an automated report with no human intervention The type of sensor equipment will be encoded in the remarks section Absence of AUTO indicates the report was made manually or had human augmentation COR Identifies the report as a corrected report to replace an earlier report with an error Wind If the wind is less than 6 kts & the wind is varying in
direction,the contraction VRB is used for wind direction VRB04KT means wind is variable in direction at 4 kt Calm wind is defined by speed less than 3 kts and is coded as 00000KT Gust is a variation in wind speed of 10 kt or more between peaks and lulls A gust is reported by the letter G after the wind speed, followed by the highest reported gust 21013G30KT means the wind is from 210 true at 13 kts
with gusts to 30 kts Wind If the wind is variable by 60 or more and the wind is greater than 6 kt, a variable group consisting of the extremes of the wind directions separated by V will follow the wind group 32012G22KT 280V350 means the wind direction is from 320 true at 12 kt, gusts to 22 kt, wind direction variable between 280 and 350 true A SPECI will be issued if the wind direction changes by 45 or more in less than 15 min. and the sustained
winds are 10 kt or more throughout the wind shift Visibility If tower or surface visibility is less than 4 SM, the lesser of the two will be reported in this element, and the greater will be reported in the remarks Automated reporting stations will show visibility less than SM as M1/4SM and visibility of 10 SM and greater as 10SM Automated reporting with more than one sensor, site-specific visibility lower than visibility shown in the body will be shown in
the remarks When visibility is less than 7 SM, the restriction to the visibility will be shown in the weather element. If volcanic ash, low drifting dust, or snow is observed, those restrictions are reported even if greater than 7 SM Runway Visual Range (RVR) When reported, is in the format: R(runway)/(visual range)FT R identifies the group followed by the runway heading, a /, and the visual range in
feet R32L/1200FT runway 32 left visual range 1200 feet R32/M0600FTrunway 32 visual range is less than 600 ft Weather Phenomena Intensity Proximity Descriptor Precipitation Obscuration to visibility Other weather phenomena
Weather Phenomena + Intensity Heavy Shown with most precipitation (Nosymbol) Moderate May be shown with obscurations Light When more than one type of precipitation is present, the intensity refers to the first precipitation type Weather Phenomena
VCVicinity Proximity Applied to and reported only for weather occurring in the vicinity of the airport. Vicinity is defined to be between 5 and 10 SM from the point of observation. Weather Phenomena TSDescriptor Thunderstorm (8) descriptors used to further identify weather SH Eight Showers phenomena.
FZ BL DR MI BC PR Freezing Blowing Low Drifting Shallow Patches Partial
Weather Phenomena Descriptors MI (Shallow) Used to describe fog with little vertical extent (less than 6 ft.) BC (Patches) Used to describe fog with little vertical extent and reduces horizontal visibility DR (Low Drifting) Used when dust, sand, or snow is raised by the wind to less than 6 ft BL (Blowing) Used when dust, sand, snow, and/or spray is raised by the wind to a height of 6 ft or more TS and SH (Thunderstorm & Shower)used with
precipitation and may be preceded with an intensity symbol, the intensity applies to the precipitation and not the descriptor Weather Phenomena Precipitation RA Rain DZ Any Drizzle form of water particles, solid or liquid, that falls SN from Snowthe atmosphere and reach the ground. SG Nine Snow(9)
Grains types GR Hail (> diameter) GS Small Hail PL Ice Pellets IC Ice Crystals UP Unknown Precipitation Weather Phenomena FGObscuration Fog to Visibility BR Any
Mistphenomena in the atmosphere, other than precipitation, that reduce horizontal visibility HZ Haze Eight (8) types SA DU PY FU VA Sand Dust Spray Smoke
Volcanic Ash Weather Phenomena Obscuration to Visibility FG used to indicate visibility less than 5/8 SM BR used to indicate mist restricting visibility from 5/8 to 6 SM BCFG and PRFG are used to indicated patchy fog or partial fog only if prevailing visibility is 7 SM or greater Precipitation types may be grouped together while obscurations are grouped separately. Weather Phenomena Squall
Other sudden increase in wind speed of at least with the speed rising to 22kt or more and SQ16kt, Squall lasting at least one minute DS Duststorm SS Sandstorm +FC indicated in the remarks section PO Well-developed Dust/Sand Whirls FC Funnel Cloud +FC Tornado or Waterspout
Weather Phenomena TSRA Thunderstorm w/ mod rain +SN Heavy snow -RA FG Light rain and fog VCSH Showers in the vicinity Sky Conditionamount
Towering Cumulus Sky Conditionheight Cloud bases reported in hundreds of feet AGL Automated stations cannot report clouds above 12,000 ft In the mountains, if a cloud layer is below the station level, height shown as 3 forward slashes /// When more than one layer, they are given in ascending order of height
Vertical Visibility Height into an indefinite ceiling is preceded with VV followed by three digits. Ex.: 1/8 SM FG VVOO6 means visibility 1/8 mile, fog, indefinite ceiling 600 ft. Sky ConditionsSPECI Report The following require issuance of a SPECI The ceiling forms or dissipates below, decreases to less than, or, if below, increases to equal or exceed
3,000 ft 1,500 ft 500 ft Lowest standard IAP minimum as published, or 200 ft A layer of clouds or obscurations aloft is present below 1,000 ft., but no layer aloft was reported below 1,000 ft in the preceding METAR Remarks Preceded by the contraction RMK Time entries usually shown as minutes past the hour Phenomena within 5 SM of the point of observation
will be reported as at the station If between 5 & 10 sm, then VC (vicinity) Beyond 10 sm, reported as DSNT (distant) Direction indicated with the 8 pts. of the compass Movement of clouds or wx is indicated by direction toward which the phenomena is moving Remarks (examples)
TORNADO B13 DSNT NE PK WND 28045/1955 OR PK WND 34050/38 WSHFT 45 FROPA VIS 1V2 or VIS N 2
OCNL LTGICCG 2 NWoccasional lightning incloud & cloud-to-ground 2 sm to the northwest RAB05E30SNB20E55 TS OHD MOV N CIG 005V010 ACSL SW-S SLP 132 SNINCR 2/10 Sensor Status Indicators RVRNO-runway visual range PWINO-present weather identifier PNO-precipitation amount FZRANO-freezing rain info indicator TSNO-lightning information VISNO-visibility sensor info
CHINO-cloud height indicator info ASOS (Automated Surface Observation System) Primary surface weather observing system. Provides continuous minute-by-minute observations Transmitted over a discrete VHF freq or with a navaid, receivable to a maximum of 25 nm up to 10,000 ft AO1station without a precip. discriminator AO2station with a precip. discriminator AWOS Predecessor to ASOS. -A: only reports altimeter setting. -1: reports altimeter setting, wind data, temp., dew point, & density altitude.
-2: same as AWOS-1 plus visibility. -3: same as AWOS-2 plus cloud/ceiling data. KBPK 021153Z AUTO 13005KT 10SM OVC004 01/01 A3001 RMK AO2 CIG 004V008 SLP167 60003 70015 T00110011 10011 20006 55004 $ KSGF 021452Z 17004KT 8SM FEW004 OVC012 06/06 A3006 RMK AO2 RAB1354E23 SLP180 P0001 60009 T00610056 51014
KGEG 021912Z 16008KT 4SM -SN BR FEW009 BKN014 OVC035 M02/M02 A3014 RMK AO2 P0000 T10171017 $ Encoded Groups: 1sTTT 6-hourly maximum temperature. 10183 = +18.3 C 2sTTT 6-hourly minimum temperature. 21044 = -4.4 C 4/SSS Snow depth in inches. 4/021 = 21 inches on ground 5aPPP 3-hourly pressure tendency. PPP=tenths hPa change; a=code: 4=steady 0123=increasing 5678=decreasing; higher#=faster recently 6RRRR Hundredths of inches of rain in past 6 hours 60009 is 9/100 of an inch in the past 6 hours 7RRRR Hundredths of inches of rain in past 24 hours (1200Z report) P0001 00.01 Inches of precipitation has fallen in the past hour Terminal Aerodrome
Forecast (TAF) TAFIntro ****Covers an area within 5 sm of airports center EXAMINER QUESTION!!!!!!! Scheduled 4 times daily beginning at 0000Z Use same codes as METARs (plus a few) All times are UTC denoted with a Z 2 consecutive, complete METAR observations, not less than 30 min. apart nor more than 1 hr. apart, are required for a TAF to be issued
Type of Report TAFroutine forecast TAF AMDamended forecast TAF CORwhen a TAF contains a typo or other errors TAF RTDissued for those airports not having a 24 hr observing schedule. When the first two complete METARs are received, a routine delayed TAF is issued Elements Sig. WXsame as METAR except for NSWno significant weather VConly used with FG, SH, or TS Sky Conditionssame as METAR
Wind Shearforecast of low-level nonconvective winds up to 2,000 ft. AGL WS018/32030KT AC 00-45G Aviation Weather Services TEMPO Group Used for temporary fluctuations in wind, visibility, wx, or sky conditions that are expected to last for generally < 1 hr TEMPO followed by a four-digit group giving the
beginning & ending hour of the time period Only the changing conditions are included Ex. 5SM BR BKN030 TEMPO 2213/2216 1 SM BR Omitted conditions are carried over from previous group FM Group Used when a rapid & significant change is expected Attached is the four-digit hour & minute when change
is expected to begin & continue until next change group Will always mark the beginning of a new line Contains all required elements( wind, vis, etc.) Ex. FM211700 17006KT P6SM BKN015 BECMG Group Only in Military TAFs Used when a gradual change in conditions is expected over a longer time period, but no longer than 2 hours Attached is a four-digit group with the beginning & ending hours
Only changing conditions are included Ex. BECMG 1013/1015 20013G20KT 4SM SHRA OVC020 PROB Group Indicates the chance of TS or other precipitation events along with associated wx conditions Will not be issued during first 6 hr. of a TAF Attached is a probability value & a four-digit group giving the beginning & ending hour Ex.PROB30 2200/2202 2SM -FZDZ BR OVC007
International Differences Altimeter reported in millibars Wind may be reported in knots, KMH, or meters per second(MPS) Visibility is reported in four digits using meters with the direction of the lowest visibility sector Ex. 6000SW means vis. is lowest at 6,000 m to the southwest Also contains a trend code: D-down; U-up; N-no change; V-variable CAVOK (ceiling & vis. OK) replaces vis., wx, & sky conditions on METARs & TAFs if:
Visibility is 10 km or more No clouds below 1,500 m No cumulonimbus clouds No significant weather phenomena KLIT 211358Z 2114/2212 12005KT 2SM BR OVC005 TEMPO 2114/2115 1/4SM FG VV001 FM211500 14006KT 5SM BR OVC008 FM211700 17006KT P6SM BKN015 FM211900 18007KT P6SM SCT030 BKN250
BECMG 0220/0221 13012KT 8000 -SHRA OVC010 QNH2980INS TX08/0219Z TNM04/0212Z Winds AloftFDs Issued twice daily based on data from 0000Z & 1200Z Line labeled FT (forecast levels) shows 9 standard levels Through 12,000 ft., the levels are true, & from 18,000 up, they are pressure May request info for FL450 & FL530 No winds forecast within 1,500 ft. of station elevation No temps forecast for any level within 2,500 ft. of
station elevation. Temps negative above FL240 Forecast Regions Decoding 4-digit group shows direction(true), & wind speed Ex.2714 means wind from 270 at 14 kt 6-digit group includes forecast temps Ex.2321-04 mean wind from 230 at 21 kt. & temp at -4C If wind speed is forecast to be from 100 kt. to 199 kt., then subtract 50 from wind direction & add 100 to wind speed Ex.731960 means winds from 230 at 119 kt. & temp at -60C If wind speed is forecast 200kt or more, wind group is coded at 199kt
Ex7799 is 270 at 199kt or greater When speed is forecast less than 5 kt, the coded group is 9900 (LIGHT AND VARIABLE) FDs DATA BASED ON 171200Z VALID 180000Z FOR USE 2100-0600Z. TEMPS NEG ABV 24000 FT 3000 39000 SEA 0217 304459 FSM 2115
3407-02 2926-07 2958-16 3071-25 319840 810551 PIREPs (Pilot Reports) Aircraft in flight are the only means of directly observing cloud tops, icing, turbulence, etc They help fill in gaps between reporting stations A pilot should always transmit PIREPs when conditions are
encountered that were not forecast This helps the NWS verify forecasts & increase accuracy All altitudes are MSL unless otherwise noted Visibility distance is in statute miles All other distances in nautical miles Format (R) Type of ReportUUA/UA (R) Location--/OV (distances in NM) (R) Time--/TM (Zulu) (R) Altitude/Flight Level--/FL (always MSL unless noted) (R) Aircraft Type--/TP Sky Cover--/SK
Flight visibility & weather--/WX Temperature--/TA Wind--/WV Turbulence--/TB Icing--/IC Remarks--/RM (At least 1 weather element is also required)
Type of Report Urgent(UAA)Any PIREP that contains any of the following wx phenomena:
Tornadoes, clouds, waterspouts Severe or extreme turbulence, including CAT Severe Icing; hail Volcanic ash LLWS Any other wx phenomena which are considered hazardous to flight ops Routine (UA)any PIREP that does not include those things listed above Turbulence Intensity Light
Moderate Severe Extreme Duration Times Occasionalless than 1/3 of the time. Intermittent1/3 to 2/3 of the time. Continuousmore than 2/3 of the time. Icing Intensity Trace Light Moderate Severe PIREPs
FSM UA /OV FSM/TM 1630/FLUNKN/TP F16/SK BKN/SCT020TOPS030/RM DURGD LNDD FSM HIER LYRS TO W KTYR UA /OV TYR090005/TM 2100/FLUNKN/TP SR20/SK OVC008TOP021/RM DURC LIT UA /OV LIT/TM 1632/FLDURC/TP BE19/SK BKN011-TOP040 OKC UA /OV OKC/TM 1940/FL048/TP PA24/RM 10NW OKC BASES RPRTD 048 AND CLEAR ABOVE JBR UA /OV JBR/TM 1518/FLUNKN/TP BE58/SK OVC009/TOP022 KCGF UUA /OV KCGF/TM 1615/FL010/TP BE90/SK SCT035 BKN070/ WX FV10SM/TA 16/WV 27015G25KT/TB MOD BLO 010 /RM LLWS //- 10KT SFC-010 Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service Continuous broadcast over selected VORs Includes: AIRMETs
SIGMETs Convective SIGMETs Severe weather forecast alerts (AWW) Center weather advisories (CWA) Urgent PIREPs HIWAS Chart Symbol & Frequency Automatic Terminal Info Service A continuous broadcast of recorded information in selected terminal areas. Purpose is to improve controller effectiveness & relieve freq congestion by automating the repetitive transmission of current weather info &
noncontrol airport info In-Flight Weather Advisories Forecasts that advise enroute aircraft of the development of potentially hazardous weather Heights are referenced in MSL, except in the case of ceilings(CIG) 3 Types AIRMETs SIGMETs Convective SIGMETs Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg
AIRMETs (WA) Advise of significant wx phenomena, but with conditions lower than those requiring SIGMETs Primarily for smaller aircraft Issued every 6 hr., updated as needed ***AIRMETs are advisories of significant weather phenomena but of lower intensities than SIGMETs and are intended for dissemination to all pilot Each bulletin contains Any current AIRMETs in effect An outlook for conditions expected after the valid per
Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg AIRMETs 3 Types Sierra describes IFR weather conditionsceilings less than 1,000 ft. and/or vis less than 3sm over 50% of an area. Extensive mountain obscuration Tango Moderate Turbulence Sustained winds of 30 kt. or greater Nonconvective low-level wind shear
Zulu Moderate Icing Freezing-level heights Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg AIRMETs After the first issuance each day, bulletins are numbered sequentially for easier identification Area covered by AIRMETs & SIGMETs Correspond to FA areas Maximum forecast period is 6 hours for AIRMETs & 4 hours for SIGMETs
Both are considered widespread They affect an area of at least 3,000 sq. miles Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg AIRMET Sierra BOSS WA 021345 AIRMET SIERRA UPDT 3 FOR IFR AND MTN OBSCN VALID UNTIL 022000 . AIRMET IFR...NY FROM MSS TO PLB TO 45W ALB TO 45E BUF TO 55N SYR TO MSS OCNL VIS BLW 3SM BR. CONDS ENDG NR 15Z. . AIRMET MTN OBSCN...NY FROM MSS TO PLB TO 45W ALB TO SYR TO MSS MTNS
OCNLY OBSCD CLDS/BR. CONDS 15Z-16Z. Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg AIRMET Tango SLCT WA 021345 AIRMET TANGO UPDT 2 FOR TURB VALID UNTIL 022000 . AIRMET TURB...MT WY FROM 50NNW ISN TO 70NNW BFF TO CZI TO SHR TO 60NW GGW TO 50NNW ISN OCNL MOD TURB BLW 100 ASSOCD WITH MOD NWLY LOWLVL WINDS. CONDS ENDG 22-00Z. ....=
Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg AIRMET Zulu CHIZ WA 021345 AIRMET ZULU UPDT 2 FOR ICE AND FRZLVL VALID UNTIL 022000 . NO SGFNT ICE EXP. . OTLK VALID 2000-0200Z...ICE MN WI MI LS LM OCNL MOD RIME/MXD ICGICIP BTN 090 AND FL180. CONDS DVLPG OVR ARROWHEAD OF MN AND WRN LS 23Z AND SPRDG SEWD ACRS NRN 1/3 WI WRN 1/2 OF UPR MI AND RMNDR LS BY 02Z. CONDS CONTG THRU 02Z. . FRZLVL...ND...080-110 NWRN HLF LWRG TO 055-085 BY 21Z 110-125 SERN HLF LWRG TO 085-110 BY 21Z
NWRN SD...110-125 LWRG TO 085-110 BY 21Z NWRN MN...095-120 LWRG TO 055-090 BY 21Z RMNDR N OF RAP-ABR-GRB-ASP...100-130 S OF RAP-ABR-GRB-ASP...130-145. ....= Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg SIGMETs (WS) Advises of nonconvective wx that is potentially hazardous to ALL aircraft Issued when the following occur or are expected
to occur: ****Severe icing not associated with thunderstorms Severe or extreme turb or CAT not associated with thunderstorms Duststorms, sandstorms, or volcanic ash lowering surface or in-flight vis to below 3 SM Volcanic eruption Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg SIGMETs Valid for 4 hrs unless conditions are associated with a hurricane, then valid for 6 hours
Identified by designators NOVEMBER thru YANKEE, excluding SIERRA & TANGO First issuance labeled UWS (urgent wx sigmet) Issuances for same phenomenon are numbered sequentially, using the original designator Ex.SIGMET PAPA 1 issued in the SLC FA, then SIGMET PAPA 2 issued in the CHI FA after wx moves Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg
Sigmet DFWS WA 172350 AMD AIRMET SIERRA UPDT 7 FOR IFR AND MTN OBSCN VALID UNTIL 180300 AIRMET IFR...OK TX AR AND CSTL WTRS... UPDT FROM 20NNW RZC TO 50WSW AEX TO 40SSW LFK TO 20SSW PSX TO 30S CRP TO 60ESE LRD TO 80SSE LRD TO 20W DLF TO 70SE FST TO 50ESE JCT TO 50ENE ACT TO 20NE ADM TO 40WNW OKC TO 50ESE END TO 20NNW RZC CIG BLW 010/ VIS BLW 3SM PCPN/BR. CONDS CONTG BYD 03Z THRU 09Z. OTLK VALID 0300-0900Z Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg Sigmet DFWZ WA 172045 AIRMET ZULU UPDT 3 FOR ICE AND
FRZLVL VALID UNTIL 180300 AIRMET ICE...TX LA AND CSTL WTRS FROM GGG TO AEX TO 110SSW LCH TO 80E BRO TO BRO TO 90W BRO TO LRD TO CWK TO GGG MOD ICE BTN 120 AND FL240. CONDS DVLPG 00-03Z. CONDS CONTG BYD 03Z THRU 09Z Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg Convective SIGMET (WST) Issued for the following: Severe thunderstorm due to Surface winds greater than or equal to 50 kt. Hail at surface > or = in. in diameter
Tornadoes Embedded thunderstorms ****Thunderstorms obscured by massive cloud layers A line of thunderstorms Thunderstorms producing precip > or = to heavy precip affecting 40% or more of an area of at least 3,000 sq. mi. Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg Convective SIGMETs Implies severe or greater turbulence, severe icing, &
low-level wind shear May be issued for any convective situation that the forecaster feels is hazardous to all aircraft Issued hourly, at H + 55, for the eastern (E), central (C), & western (W) United States Text consists of either an observation & a forecast or just a forecast Forecast valid for up to 2 hours
Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg Convective Sigmet MKCC WST 041855 CONVECTIVE SIGMET 9C VALID UNTIL 2055Z IL MO IA FROM 10SE IOW-50SSW BDF-10WSW UIN-50ESE DSM-10SE IOW AREA EMBD TS MOV FROM 26020KT. TOPS TO FL340. CONVECTIVE SIGMET 10C VALID UNTIL 2055Z MO IA KS NE FROM 40WSW OVR-50NW IRK-50SW PWE-40WSW OVR AREA EMBD TS MOV FROM 26020KT. TOPS TO FL330.
OUTLOOK VALID 042055-050055 FROM ORD-FWA-LOU-RZC-HLC-ORD SCT TS ACT WL CONT TO DVLP INVOF OF A SFC STATIONARY FRONT THAT EXTENDS FM NRN MO THRU CNTRL IL INTO NRN IN. A BROAD MID LEVEL TROF MOVING INTO THE CNTRL U.S. WITH EMBEDDED SHORTWAVES...INCREASING LOW LEVEL MOISTURE...AND AN INCREASING LOW LEVEL JET WL ALL CONTRIBUTE TO TS DVLPMNT. WST ISSUANCES EXPD THRUT PD. Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg In-Flight Weather FSSFlight Service Station Provide weather on 122.2 and other frequencies Designed to be a continual exchange of information between pilots
& weather briefers Pilots should expect actual WX info & TS activity along the route Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg In-Flight Weather ATC Primary function is to provide safe separation between aircraft Weather avoidance assistance may also be available Radar/Thunderstorms Reports passed on from other aircraftturbulence, etc. Center Weather Advisories
CWSU (Center Weather Service Unit) Co-located with ARTCC Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg Radar Weather Reports Textual reports of weather radar observations ****Are of special interest to pilots because the indicate the location of precipitation along with the type, intensity, & cell movement of precipitation Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg
Surface Analysis Chart Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg Significant Weather Prognostic Charts Used by the pilot for determining areas to avoid (freezing levels & turbulence) Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg Surface Prog Chart Aviation Program at Ozarka Colleg
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