ATOMS, MOLECULES and IONS

ATOMS, MOLECULES and IONS

2.4 Names and Formulas of Inorganic Compounds Naming and Writing Formulae of Ionic Compounds What is an Ionic Compound? A compound made up of ions of a metal AND a non-metal or a polyatomic ion A compound in which a metal and a non-metal/polyatomic ion donate and accept electrons The net (overall) charge of the ionic compound is 0 i.e. the compound is NEUTRAL IONIC COMPOUNDS Formed by an attraction of positively charged ion and negatively charged ion Chemical

formula NaCl Naming of IONIC COMPOUNDS metal UNIVALENT Al 3 + nonmetal MULTIVALEN T Fe 3 + Fe 2+

metal polyatomic ion polyatomic ion polyatomic ion Naming of IONIC COMPOUNDS metal UNIVALENT Al 3 + nonmetal

MULTIVALEN T Fe 3 + Fe 2+ Chemical names of Ionic Compounds 1. Have always two parts: one for a metal ion (Ca2+) and one for non metal ion (Cl-) CaCl2 1. Name the metal ion (a positive

ion) 2. Name the non-metal ion (a negative ion) 3.Lets Putlearn 1 + how 2 together to name the metal ions first! There Are Two Types Of Metal Ions metal More than one charge UNIVALENT Al 3+

only one charge MULTIVALENT Fe 2+ Fe 3+ There Are Two Types Of Metal Ions If a metal has only one charge METAL NAME METAL SYMBOL METAL ION

NAME METAL ION SYMBOL UNIVALENT METAL ION (cation) If a metal has only one charge METAL NAME METAL SYMBOL METAL ION NAME METAL ION SYMBOL To name an ion...

Use only the name of a metal METAL SYMBOL Ca K Mg Ag Li Al Ba Cs METAL NAME calcium potassium magnesium silver lithium aluminum barium

cesium METAL ION SYMBOL Ca2+ K+ Mg2+ Ag+ Li+ Al3+ Ba2+ Cs+ METAL ION NAME calcium potassium magnesium silver lithium

aluminum barium cesium MULTIVALENT METAL ION (cations) If a metal has more than one charge To name a MULTIVALENT ION Name exactly like an Univalent Metal 1. 2. Ion, but... You MUST indicated the charge by a Roman numeral, in parentheses,

immediately following the name of the metal ion Fe2+ = iron (II) (iron two) Fe3+ = iron (III) (iron three) MULTIVALENT METALS (cations) METAL ION NAME A NAME USING METAL ION SYMBOL USING THE STOCK NAMING SYSTEM THE CLASSICAL SYSTEM

Cu2+ Au+ Fe2+ Pb2+ Sn2+ Au3+ Co2+ Hg2+ copper (ll) gold (l) iron (ll) lead (ll) tin (ll) gold (lll) cobalt (ll) mercury (ll) cupric

aurous ferrous plumbous stannous auric cobaltous mercuric Chemical names of Ionic Compounds 1. Have always two parts: one for a metal ion (Ca2+) and one for non metal ion (Cl-) CaCl2 1. Name the metal ion (a positive

ion) 2. Name the non-metal ion (a negative ion) to name the non - metal ions 3. Lets Put learn 1 + how 2 together now! - NON METAL IONS Omit the original ending of the elements (anions) name and add an ide ending - ide ending means that the ion has a negative charge

For example: Cl chlorin e Cl - chlorid e NON METAL IONS ELEMENT ELEMENT NAME ION SYMBOL ION NAME (anions) SYMBOL F

fluorine F- fluoride Cl chlorine Cl- chloride Br bromine Br-

bromide I iodine I- iodide O oxygen O2- oxide S

sulphur S2- sulphide N nitrogen N3- nitride P phosphorus P3-

phosphide Chemical names of Ionic Compounds 1. Have always two parts: one for a metal ion (Ca2+) and one for non metal ion (Cl-) CaCl2 1. Name the metal ion (a positive ion) 2. Name the non-metal ion (a negative ion) 3. Put 1 +put

2 together Lets #1 and #2 together!! Rules For Naming Ionic Compounds Example 1: Zn Cl2 zinc chloride 1. Simply name the ions one after the another! (Remember that the first ion has a positive charge (metal) and the second ion has a Rules For Naming Ionic Compounds

Example 2: Ca O calcium oxide Naming Ionic Compounds Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds potassium oxide 2 methods to do this! The positive charge MUST ALWAYS balance the negative charge in the ionic

compound Method #1 potassium oxide K+ and O21.Write the formulas + charges for the metal ion (cation) and the nonmetal ion (anion)(or a polyatomic ion) 2. Balance the charges, so the overall charge of the compound = 0 What is the overall charge right now? potassium oxide K+ and O2- +1

-2 = -1 We need it to be 0! 2. Balance the charges, so the overall charge of the compound = 0 ADD ONE MORE POTASSIUM potassium oxide K+ and O2- +1 -2 = -1 We need it to be 0!

2. Balance the charges, so the overall charge of the compound = 0 ADD ONE MORE POTASSIUM potassium oxide K+ and K+ and O2- +1 +1 -2 = -1 We need it to be 0! 2. Balance the charges, so the overall charge of the compound = 0

ADD ONE MORE POTASSIUM potassium oxide K+ and K+ and O2- +1 +1 -2 = 0 We need it to be 0! 2. Balance the charges, so the overall charge of the compound = 0 ADD ONE MORE POTASSIUM potassium oxide

K+ and K+ and O2- +1 +1 -2 K2 O = 0 Now, it is ZERO! Method #2 = CROSSOVER METHOD potassium oxide Method #2 = CROSSOVER

METHOD potassium oxide 1+ K and O 2- Method #2 = CROSSOVER METHOD potassium oxide 1+ K and O 2-

K2O1 Method #2 = CROSSOVER METHOD potassium oxide 1+ K and O 2- K2O Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds Writing the Formulas of Ionic

Compounds containing Multivalent Metals If you have a name of an ionic compound containing a multivalent metal, Fe2+ = iron (II) (iron two) Fe3+ = iron (III) (iron To name a MULTIVALENT ION 1. Name it exactly like you do with Univalent Metal Ions, but... 2. You MUST indicated the charge by a Roman numeral, in parentheses, immediately following the

name of the metal ion Fe2+ = iron (II) (iron two) Fe3+ = iron (III) (iron three) Writing the Formulas of Ionic Compounds containing Multivalent Metals 1. Identify each ion and its charge 2. Use A CROSSOVER METHOD (or Method #1) to balance the charges on each ion so you have ZERO (0) overall charge!! iron(III)sulphid e Fe

3+ and S Fe2S3 2- Rules For Naming Ionic Compounds containing Multivalent Metals If the first ion (metal) is a multivalent metal ion, use the second ions charge to determine the first ions name Fe2+ = iron (II) (iron

two) Fe3+ = iron (III) (iron Rules For Naming Ionic Compounds containing Multivalent Metals Example 2: Pb O2 Which lead is it? lead (II) OR lead (IV) How will you find out? Rules For Naming Ionic Compounds containing

Multivalent Metals Example 2: Pb O2 Which lead is it? lead (II) OR lead (IV) Look at the charge on the second ion! Rules For Naming Ionic Compounds containing Multivalent Metals Example 2: Pb O2

Which lead is it? lead (II) OR lead (IV) You know: 1. The compound is neutral (overall 0 charge), so the charge of the first ion (lead) equals the charge on the second ion (oxide) Rules For Naming Ionic Compounds containing Multivalent Metals Example 2: Pb O2 Which lead is it? lead (II)

OR One oxides (O2-) charge is: We have two 2 oxides: O -2 lead (IV) So, the charge of the two oxides is twice as much: -4

Rules For Naming Ionic Compounds containing Multivalent Metals Example 2: Pb O2 Which lead is it? lead (II) OR lead (IV) The charge on the positive ion then MUST be +4 to balance the negative charge of

-4 Rules For Naming Ionic Compounds containing Multivalent Metals Example 2: Pb O2 Which lead is it? lead (II) OR The correct ion is then: lead (IV) Rules For Naming Ionic Compounds containing

Multivalent Metals Example 2: Pb O2 Which lead is it? lead (II) OR lead (IV) And the name for this compound is: lead (IV) oxide Naming of IONIC COMPOUNDS metal

UNIVALENT Al 3 + nonmetal MULTIVALEN T Fe 3 + Fe 2+ metal polyatomic ion polyatomic

ion polyatomic ion Naming of IONIC COMPOUNDS metal UNIVALENT Al 3 + nonmetal MULTIVALEN T Fe 3 + Fe

2+ metal polyatomic ion polyatomic ion polyatomic ion Polyatomic A polyatomicIons ion contains more than one atom OH , CN , NH , NO -

- + 4 3 Polyatomic You have to memorize the names, formulae, and charges of these polyatomic ions +Ions other ones (see the worksheet): Name Formula and charge Name carbonate

chromate dichromate sulphate sulphite nitrate nitrite ammonium CO32CrO42Cr2O72SO42SO32NO3NO2NH4+ acetate permanganate perchlorate oxalate cyanide chlorite phosphate hydroxide Formula and

charge H3C2O2MnO4ClO4C2O42CNClO2- PO43OH- Writing the Formulas of Ionic Compounds containing Polyatomic Ions 1. Identify each ion and its charge 2. Use A CROSSOVER METHOD (or Method #1) to balance the charges on each ion so you have ZERO (0) overall charge!! iron(III)sulphat e Fe 3+ and

SO4 2- Fe2(SO4)3 Naming the Formulas of Ionic Compounds containing Polyatomic Ions Pb (OH)2 Which lead is it? lead (II) OR lead (IV) How will you find out? Rules For Naming Ionic

Compounds containing Multivalent Metals Pb (OH)2 Which lead is it? lead (II) OR lead (IV) Look at the charge on the hydroxide ion! 1. The compound is neutral (overall charge = 0), so... 2. The charge of the metal ion (lead) = the charge on the polyatomic ion(s) (hydroxide)

Pb (OH)2 Which lead is it? lead (II) OR lead (IV) hydroxides charge is: We have two hydroxides : OH- 1- OH OH -

- 1- 1- Pb (OH)2 Which lead is it? lead (II) OR lead (IV) hydroxides charge is: We have two hydroxides : OH- 1-

OH OH - - 1-2-1- Pb (OH)2 Which lead is it? lead (II) OR lead (IV) hydroxides charge is: We have two hydroxides :

OH- 1- OH OH - - 2- Pb (OH)2 Which lead is it? lead (II) OR lead (IV)

The charge on lead ion then MUST be 2+ to balance the hydroxide ions charge of hydroxides charge is: We have two hydroxides : OH- 1- OH OH - - 2-

Pb (OH)2 Which lead is it? lead (II) OR lead (IV) The charge on lead ion then MUST be 2+ to balance the hydroxide ions charge of hydroxides charge is: We have two hydroxides : OH-

1- OH OH - - 2- Pb (OH)2 Which lead is it? lead (II) OR lead (IV) lead(II)hydroxide

- Naming Hydrates They are salts which include a water molecule in their crystal structure - This usually happens when an ionic compound is grown as a crystal by evaporation. This crystal structure will often include water molecules WHAT ARE HYDRATES? WHAT ARE HYDRATES? Example: When copper(II)sulphate is crystalized from water, the resulting crystals have the formula:

CuSO4 5H2O WHAT ARE HYDRATES? Example: When copper(II)sulphate is crystalized from water, the resulting crystals have the formula: CuSO4 5H2O This means that 5 water molecules are attached to each copper(II)sulphate The naming of hydrates is pretty easy! All you need is to memorize prefixes and the numbers they represent. PREFIX Number of water molecules

mono di tri tetra penta hexa hepta octa nona deca 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9 10 Naming Hydrates PREFIX Number of water molecules mono 1 di 2

tri 3 tetra 4 penta 5 hexa 6 hepta 7

4. Put steps 1 + 3 together octa 8 nona 9 copper(II)sulphate pentahydrate deca 10 CuSO4 5H2O 1. Name salt as usual 2. Use a prefix to name the

number associated with water molecule 3. Add a word hydrate to step 2 (hydrate = water) Naming Hydrates Zn(CH3COO)2 2H2O PREFIX Number of water molecules mono 1

di 2 tri 3 tetra 4 number associated with water molecule penta 5

3. Add a word hydrate to step hexa 6 hepta 7 octa 8 nona 9 deca

10 1. Name salt as usual 2. Use a prefix to name the 2 (hydrate = water) 4. Put steps 1 + 3 together zinc acetate dihydrate Writing the Chemical Formula of a Hydrate Number of PREFIX water molecules

mono 1 di 2 tri 3 tetra 4 penta 5

hexa 6 hepta 7 octa 8 nona 9 deca 10

calcium nitrate tetrahydrate Ca(NO3)2 4H2O Naming and Writing Formulas of A SIMPLE DESCRIPTION: Acids An acid is a compound which has its formula starting with H The formula of an acid is one or more hydrogens bonded to a monatomic or polyatomic anion. The way that the acid is named is determined by the suffix of the anion. HCl, HF, H2SO4, HNO3

WHAT IS AN ACID? Naming and Writing Formulas of A SIMPLE DESCRIPTION: Acids An acid is a compound which has its formula starting with H The formula of an acid is one or more hydrogens bonded to a monatomic or polyatomic anion. The way that the acid is named is determined by the suffix of the anion. HCl, HF, H2SO4, HNO3 WHAT IS AN ACID? Naming and Writing Formulas of Acids

The way that the acid is named is determined by the suffix of the anion. NO nitrate 3 N nitride 3- NO nitrite 2 Naming and Writing Formulas of Acids Name this compound

HNO3 hydrogen nitrate Naming and Writing Formulas of Acids Name this compound H3N hydrogen nitride Naming and Writing Formulas of Acids Name this compound HNO2 hydrogen nitrite Naming and Writing Formulas of Acids

The way that the acid is named is determined by the suffix of the anion. HNO3 H3N HNO2 hydrogen nitratehydrogen nitride hydrogen nitrite The naming is different though: hydrogen nitrate hydrogen nitride hydrogen nitrite nitric acid

hydronitric acid nitrous acid Naming and Writing Formulas of Acids In general hydrogen ___ide hydro ___ic acid hydrogen ___ate ______ic acid hydrogen ___ite _____ous acid Naming and Writing Formulas of

Acids Examples: HCl H2SO4 HClO2 HF Naming and Writing Formulas of Acids What is the suffix? HCl - ide hydrochloric acid H2SO4 - ate sulphuric acid

HClO2 - ite HF - ide chlorous acid hydrofluoric acid Naming and Writing Formulas of Covalent Compounds (molecules) COVALENT COMPOUNDS (molecules): contain a non metal(s) bonding to a non metal(s) 1. because non-metals combine in more than one ratio, we must use prefixes to indicate the number of atoms of each element in the formula. 2. if the prefix is followed by a vowel, the final "a" or "o" is dropped (not for DI- or TRI-) 3. EXCEPTION: the prefix mono is omitted for the first element only

The prefixes used are the same as for naming PREFIX hydrates: Number of atoms mono 1 di 2 tri 3 tetra 4 penta

5 hexa 6 hepta 7 octa 8 nona 9 deca

10 Naming and Writing Formulas of Covalent Compounds (molecules) PREFIX Number of atoms mono 1 di 2 tri

3 tetra 4 penta 5 hexa 6 hepta 7 octa

8 nona 9 deca 10 EXAMPLES: N2O N2O5 CO CO2 dinitrogen monoxide dinitrogen pentoxide monocarbon monoxide

carbon monoxide carbon dioxide HOMEWORK 2.4 Review Problems: 106 Problems: all 105 - QUIZ Tuesday, March 11

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